Hiv Signs And Symptoms Pdf

hiv signs and symptoms pdf

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HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying a type of white blood cell that helps your body fight infection. This puts you at risk for serious infections and certain cancers.

Diagnosis and Initial Management of Acute HIV Infection

In the early stages of infection, many people will develop little or no signs of illness. They either don't realize they've been infected or will only act when outward signs begin to appear. This condition is commonly referred to as acute retroviral syndrome also referred to as ARS, acute seroconversion syndrome, or seroconversion illness. ARS can persist for months until the immune system is finally able to take control of the virus. This is followed by the chronic stage of infection in which the virus slowly dismantles the immune defense over months and years. While HIV will still be replicating at this stage, it generally does so at a slower rate until the viral load finally levels off and establishes a so-called "viral set point.

COVID is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Get the latest CDC public health information. The only way to know for sure if you have HIV is to get tested. Knowing your HIV status gives you powerful information so you can take steps to keep yourself and your partner s healthy:. HIV self-testing is also an option. Self-testing allows people to take an HIV test and find out their result in their own home or other private location. You can buy a self-test kit at a pharmacy or online, or your health care provider may be able to order one for you.

Sigall Kassutto, Eric S. Emerging evidence suggests that early events in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 infection may play a critical role in determining disease progression. Although there is limited evidence on which to base medical decisions, the diagnosis and treatment of acute HIV-1 infection may have virologic, immunologic, and clinical benefits. In addition, rapid diagnosis of infection may prevent unknowing transmission of HIV-1 during a period of high-level viremia. We review the basic principles of primary HIV-1 infection, clinical and diagnostic markers of acute seroconversion, approaches to management, and new therapeutic strategies. Infected and uninfected cells traffic to regional lymph nodes, where HIV-1 resides and replicates for days to weeks [ 2 , 3 ]. DCs act as potent antigen-presenting cells, priming naive T cells and enabling rapid infection of T cells.

Explaining HIV and AIDS

Recognition and diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection in the primary care setting presents an opportunity for patient education and health promotion. Symptoms of acute HIV infection are nonspecific e. Because a wide range of conditions may produce similar symptoms, the diagnosis of acute HIV infection involves a high index of suspicion, a thorough assessment of HIV exposure risk, and appropriate HIV-related laboratory tests. After the diagnosis of acute HIV infection is confirmed, physicians should discuss effective transmission risk reduction strategies with patients. The decision to initiate antiretroviral therapy should be guided by consultation with an HIV specialist. Acute human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection, also known as primary HIV infection or acute retroviral syndrome, is the period just after initial HIV infection, generally before seroconversion. Although some patients remain asymptomatic, acute HIV infection often manifests with transient symptoms related to high levels of HIV viral replication and the subsequent immune response.


fever (raised temperature) rash sore throat swollen glands headache upset stomach joint aches and pains muscle pain. These symptoms happen because your body is reacting to the HIV virus.


Symptoms of HIV

Acute infection lasts for several weeks and may include symptoms such as fever , swollen lymph nodes , inflammation of the throat , rash , muscle pain , malaise , and mouth and esophageal sores. The latency stage involves few or no symptoms and can last anywhere from two weeks to twenty years or more, depending on the individual. It occurs after the incubation stage, before the latency stage and the potential AIDS succeeding the latency stage.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus HIV. By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body's ability to fight infection and disease. It can also be spread by contact with infected blood or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding. These drugs have reduced AIDS deaths in many developed nations. Some people infected by HIV develop a flu-like illness within two to four weeks after the virus enters the body.

There are various methods of HIV testing and prevention, including partner notification.

Signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS

HIV is a virus that targets and alters the immune system, increasing the risk and impact of other infections and diseases. Without treatment, the infection might progress to an advanced stage called AIDS. The life expectancy of a person with HIV is now approaching that of someone who tests negative for the virus, provided that the person takes medications called antiretroviral therapy on an ongoing basis. These are types of T cell — white blood cells that circulate, detecting infections throughout the body and faults and anomalies in other cells. HIV targets and infiltrates CD4 cells, using them to create more copies of the virus. This increases the risk and impact of opportunistic infections and some types of cancer. It is worth noting, however, that some people have HIV for long periods without experiencing any symptoms.

There are four stages of HIV and as with all illnesses, how it progresses, how long it takes and the affect it has on the individual depends on a number of factors for example, general health, lifestyle, diet etc. HIV quickly replicates in the body after infection. Some people develop short lived flu-like symptoms for example, headaches, fever, sore throat and a rash within days to weeks after infection. As the name suggests, this stage of HIV infection does not cause outward signs or symptoms. A person may look and feel well but HIV is continuing to weaken their immune system. This stage may last several years an average of 8 to 10 years and without a HIV test many people do not know they are infected. Over time the immune system becomes damaged and weakened by HIV and symptoms develop.

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And the signs and symptoms of HIV infection may feel just like other common virus infections like flu, a cold, sore throat, or mononucleosis (mono). What tests can.


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Early Signs and Symptoms of HIV

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