Rcc Anatomy And Physiology Pdf

rcc anatomy and physiology pdf

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Kidney cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers to affect men and women. It is more common in older people. The average age of those diagnosed with kidney cancer is 64 years old.

Renal cell carcinoma

Kidney cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers to affect men and women. It is more common in older people. The average age of those diagnosed with kidney cancer is 64 years old.

Please visit the following sections to learn more about kidney cancer:. Kidneys are fist-sized organs that are part of the urinary system. Everyone has 2 kidneys, which are located on either side of the spine, right below the ribcage. Each kidney is made of millions of filtering units known as nephrons.

Each nephron is made of a glomerular Bowman's capsule and a renal tubule, and is located in the regions of the kidney known as the renal cortex and renal medulla. Specific information regarding these two kidney regions can be found below. Blood is initially filtered in the glomerular capsule to form urine.

The renal tubule further processes the urine by allowing water and ions to be added to or taken out of the urine. The kidneys are responsible for blood filtration. In a day's time, the two kidneys are able to filter approximately 48 gallons of blood. The material filtered out of the blood by the kidneys is used to produce urine.

The kidneys help to eliminate the buildup of potentially harmful chemicals by causing them to be released from the body in urine. Each kidney can be divided into 2 major regions. These two regions work together to produce and filter urine for excretion out of the body.

In general, tumors can be cancerous malignant or non-cancerous benign. Kidney cancer refers to malignant tumors, originating in the kidneys, which can spread metastasize to other places in the body. The direct cause of kidney cancer in any specific individual is currently unknown. Studies indicate higher rates of renal cell cancer RCC among men than among women. The rates also vary geographically; higher rates are found in Europe and North American than in Asia and South America. It has also been shown that RCC cases are being diagnosed at an earlier stage than in the past, which could be accounted for by better imaging technology that reveals earlier stage cancers.

The following is a list of some of the known risk factors for developing kidney cancer. These risk factors are expanded upon, below.

Note that having a risk factor does not necessarily mean an individual will develop kidney cancer. Cigarette smoke contains cancer-causing carcinogenic chemicals, including N-nitrosamines that damage the DNA in cells, including kidney cells. For more information about tobacco's role in cancer development, visit CancerQuest's page on tobacco. BMI is measured based on an individual's height and weight. A person with a higher BMI has a higher body fat level.

High blood pressure hypertension is a chronic disease that, if left uncontrolled, can damage kidney functions and lead to kidney diseases. Studies suggest that people with hypertension may be at increased risk for RCC.

Most cases of RCC are not thought to be due to heredity. However, individuals who have the following genetic conditions are at an increased risk for developing RCC:. Studies suggest that individuals with CTR9 gene mutations are predisposed to Wilms tumor. It is recommended that children of a parent who had Wilms tumor is both kidneys bilateral Wilms tumor undergo ultrasound screenings every 3 months, until they are 8 years of age.

In some children, aniridia eye disease involving absence of iris may be a result of large chromosomal deletions that also include the WT1 gene. Because of this, those children are 67 times more likely to develop Wilms tumor than children without those large chromosomal deletions. More on the genetics of kidney cancer.

Evidences also suggest possible associations between the following risk factors and RCC development, but are not conclusive:. Although the direct cause of kidney cancer in an individual is currently unknown, certain factors may increase an individual's risk for developing kidney cancer.

The following are lifestyle choices that may help lower these risks: 7 Early stage kidney cancer typically does not produce symptoms. Larger kidney cancer tumors and kidney cancers that have spread metastasized to other parts of the body are more likely to produce symptoms. The symptoms listed below are associated with kidney cancer but may also be due to other conditions.

The following are some examples of tests that the oncologist may perform. During physical exams, doctors will feel palpate for growths and indications of kidney tumors.

An ultrasound uses sound waves to detect masses on the kidneys and to show whether the identified mass is solid or fluid-filled. Positron Emission Tomography PET scans are used to track the movement of tagged chemicals in the body. PET images are not as detailed as CT scan images and cannot provide precise information about a tumor's shape, size, and position. PET scans can be used to identify the general location of a tumor and the location s of where the cancer has spread metastasized. Patients who have kidney cancer tend to have fewer red blood cells.

Abnormal urinalysis results may indicate kidney problems. The doctor may also choose to examine the urine for cancer cells urine cytology. Staging allows doctors to figure out the degree to which the cancer has spread metastasized so that they will be able to work with the patient to develop a treatment plan.

Staging is most often done during surgery, where a surgical oncologist takes tissue samples from targeted regions, for analysis. This system categorizes kidney cancer based on the size and location of the cancer. The Fuhrman grade reflects how different the cancerous kidney cell nuclei are from healthy kidney cell nuclei. The molecular basis of kidney cancer is currently poorly understood.

However, in the recent years, studies have identified several genes that are linked to the development and spread of renal cell carcinoma RCC , the most prevalent form of kidney cancer. Identification of these genes has been crucial in the development of drugs to treat the disease. The following is a list that includes some of the genes and pathways involved in kidney cancer development. In addition to studies on genetic mutations, epigenetic studies have suggested a possible correlation between DNA methylation of gremlin1 and poorer overall survival rates in clear cell RCC patients, as well as a possible correlation between DNA methylation of the GATA5 with increased metastasis.

Treatment options for kidney cancer depend on the tumor's location, the degree to which the tumor is affecting kidney functions, and the patient's health history. Some treatment options include chemotherapy , radiation therapy, surgery, and biological therapy. Since CancerQuest's focus is on the cancer's biology and the biology of possible treatments, we do not give detailed treatment guidelines.

Instead, we link to organizations in the U. For more information on kidney cancer, visit the kidney cancer page of the Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University. Winship Cancer Institute: Kidney Cancer.

Kidney Cancer Cancer Council Australia. Kidney Health Australia. Kokilaben Hospital India. Providing reliable information about cancer biology and treatment. Kidney Cancer Kidney cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers to affect men and women. Renal cortex: This is the outer portion of the kidney that consists of the glomerular capsule and a portion of the renal tubule cortical collecting, duct, proximal and distal convoluted tubules.

The structures in this region of the kidney are responsible for filtering the fluid that flows through. Unwanted materials are secreeted into urine and necessary water and nutrientsby are reabsorbed back into the body.

This region of the kidney is responsible for concentrating urine for excretion out of the body. Salt levels osmolarity are higher towards the inner renal medulla, so as urine descends through the collecting duct towards the inner renal medulla, water is reabsorbed back into the tissues, concentrating the urine.

The cells in this subtype appear very pale or clear. The cells in this subtype form finger-like projections in most of the tumor. The cells in this subtype also appear very pale or clear but are much larger in size than the cells of clear cell RCC. TCCs originate in the lining of the renal pelvis; a funnel-like structure in the kidneys that collects and drains urine. Renal sarcomas originate in the blood vessels or connective tissues of the kidney.

Evidences also suggest possible associations between the following risk factors and RCC development, but are not conclusive: Diabetes mellitus Alcohol consumption Exposure to trichloroethylene, such as in factories where trichloroethylene is used.

The following are examples of general household products that may contain trichloroethylene: rust removers, sealants, degreasers, fixatives, and cleaners 16 Parity in women parity refers to the number of times a pregnant woman has carried a fetus to a viable gestational age Prevention Although the direct cause of kidney cancer in an individual is currently unknown, certain factors may increase an individual's risk for developing kidney cancer.

The following are lifestyle choices that may help lower these risks: 7 17 Quitting smoking Maintaining healthy weight Controlling high blood pressure Eating more fruits and vegetables Avoiding occupational exposure to heavy metals, such as cadmium and lead. The following are examples of occupational exposure to cadmium and lead: welding or soldering cadmium plated material e.

Ultrasound An ultrasound uses sound waves to detect masses on the kidneys and to show whether the identified mass is solid or fluid-filled. PET Scan Machine. Staging Staging allows doctors to figure out the degree to which the cancer has spread metastasized so that they will be able to work with the patient to develop a treatment plan.

Stage I: The cancerous tumor is found only in the kidneys; it has not spread metastasized to lymph nodes or other organs. The cancerous tumor is equal to or less than 7cm 2. Stage II: The cancerous tumor is found only in the kidneys; it has not spread metastasized to lymph nodes or other organs. The cancerous tumor is greater than 7cm across. Stage III: The cancer cells have grown into major veins i.

The cancer cells have not spread to distant lymph nodes or other organs. Stage IV: This is the most advanced stage of kidney cancer. Renal Fascia of Kidney Tumor Biology The molecular basis of kidney cancer is currently poorly understood.

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Renal call carcinoma RCC is the most common malignancy of the kidney in adults. Heredity appears to play a role within the etiology of RCC. Recent evidence indicates that deletions and translocations involving the short arm of chromosome 3 are important for the oncogenesis and tumor progression of RCC.

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Associations between imaging features and genomic landscape of RCC have been recently investigated in order to characterize better tumor diagnosting more precisely, staging and establishing more accurate prognosis comparing to classic histopathologic approach. In our previous work we have already described usefulness of expression of mi-Ra measured in urine during RCC diagnostics. Moreover, high miRa expression values have been significantly associated with poor survival rates in patients with RCC. The purpose. The goal of the study is investigation of the associations between cross-sectional imaging features of RCC and urine expression levels of miRa. Materials and methods.

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