File Name: staging and grading of cancer .zip
ZERO is a free, comprehensive patient support service to help patients and their families navigate insurance and financial obstacles to cover treatment and other critical needs associated with cancer. Staging is the process used to find out if the cancer has spread within the prostate or to other parts of the body, using biopsy and imaging. More detailed information on staging is available at the bottom of this page.
We studied different histological types of BC and their prognostic indicators in part of Southwestern Nigeria.
Tumor grade is the description of a tumor based on how abnormal the tumor cells and the tumor tissue look under a microscope. It is an indicator of how quickly a tumor is likely to grow and spread. The factors used to determine tumor grade can vary between different types of cancer. Tumor grade is not the same as the stage of a cancer. Cancer stage is based on factors such as the location of the primary tumor , tumor size, regional lymph node involvement the spread of cancer to nearby lymph nodes , and the number of tumors present.
Staging and Grading
The breast cancer TNM staging system is the most common way that doctors stage breast cancer. TNM stands for:. Your scans and tests give some information about the stage of your cancer. But your doctor might not be able to tell you the exact stage until you have surgery. Your doctor also uses other information about your breast cancer. This depends on the amount of these receptors seen in the sample.
The stage of the cancer helps you and your doctor:. Breast cancer stage is usually expressed as a number on a scale of 0 through IV — with stage 0 describing non-invasive cancers that remain within their original location and stage IV describing invasive cancers that have spread outside the breast to other parts of the body. Your pathology report will include information that is used to calculate the stage of the breast cancer — that is, whether it is limited to one area in the breast, or it has spread to healthy tissues inside the breast or to other parts of the body. Your doctor will begin to determine this during surgery to remove the cancer and look at one or more of the underarm lymph nodes, which is where breast cancer tends to travel first. He or she also may order additional blood tests or imaging tests if there is reason to believe the cancer might have spread beyond the breast. The AJCC is a group of cancer experts who oversee how cancer is classified and communicated. This is to ensure that all doctors and treatment facilities are describing cancer in a uniform way so that the treatment results of all people can be compared and understood.
Skip to Content. This is called the stage. Use the menu to see other pages. Staging is a way of describing where a cancer is located, if or where it has spread, and whether it is affecting other parts of the body. There are different stage descriptions for different types of cancer. One tool that doctors use to describe the stage is the TNM system. Doctors use the results from diagnostic tests and scans to answer these questions:.
Knowing the stage and grade of a person's cancer helps doctors know what treatment to use. It also helps predict how long the person will survive or whether there is a good chance for a cure. Staging is a way to describe how much cancer is in the body and where it is located. If the cancer has spread, staging also looks at how far it has spread. The stage of cancer is based on what is found during the physical examination, imaging tests, and the pathologist's report from lab tests and biopsies. Grading is a way to describe how tumour cells look under a microscope compared to cells from healthy tissue near the tumour. The tumour grade helps predict how quickly the cancer will grow and spread.
Prostate cancer staging is the process by which physicians categorize the risk of cancer having spread beyond the prostate , or equivalently, the probability of being cured with local therapies such as surgery or radiation. Once patients are placed in prognostic categories, this information can contribute to the selection of an optimal approach to treatment. Prostate cancer stage can be assessed by either clinical or pathological staging methods. There are two schemes commonly used to stage prostate cancer. The most common is promulgated by the American Joint Committee on Cancer AJCC , and is known as the TNM system , which evaluates the size of the tumor , the extent of involved lymph nodes , and any metastasis distant spread and also takes into account cancer grade.
Prostate cancer staging
Knowing the stage and grade of a person's cancer helps doctors know what treatment to use. It also helps predict how long the person will survive or whether there is a good chance for a cure. Staging is a way to describe how much cancer is in the body and where it is located.
В воздухе пахло жженой пластмассой. Вообще говоря, это была не комната, а рушащееся убежище: шторы горели, плексигласовые стены плавились. И тогда она вспомнила. Дэвид. Паника заставила Сьюзан действовать.
Сейчас произойдет передача, - предупредил Смит. - В первый раз мы этого не заметили. Сьюзан не отрываясь смотрела на эту малоприятную картину. Танкадо задыхался, явно стараясь что-то сказать добрым людям, склонившимся над .
Машина упала на бок и замерла.
Ее обдало порывом воздуха, и машина проехала мимо. Но в следующее мгновение послышался оглушающий визг шин, резко затормозивших на цементном полу, и шум снова накатил на Сьюзан, теперь уже сзади. Секунду спустя машина остановилась рядом с. - Мисс Флетчер! - раздался изумленный возглас, и Сьюзан увидела на водительском сиденье электрокара, похожего на те, что разъезжают по полям для гольфа, смутно знакомую фигуру.
На плюшевом диване, закутавшись в махровый халат, грелся на солнце Дэвид и внимательно за ней наблюдал. Она протянула руку, поманив его к. - Без воска? - тихо спросила она, обнимая. - Без воска.
Он тихонько толкнул дверь, и та отворилась. Беккер с трудом сдержал крик ужаса. Меган сидела на унитазе с закатившимися вверх глазами.