File Name: urban design a typology of procedures and products .zip
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- Distributing responsabilities - Jon Lang's Urban Design
- Distributing responsabilities - Jon Lang's Urban Design
- Urban Design. A Typology of Procedures and Products (second edition)
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Distributing responsabilities - Jon Lang's Urban Design
Urban ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment. The urban environment refers to environments dominated by high-density residential and commercial buildings, paved surfaces , and other urban-related factors that create a unique landscape dissimilar to most previously studied environments in the field of ecology.
Urban ecology is a recent field of study compared to ecology as a whole. The methods and studies of urban ecology are similar to and comprise a subset of ecology. However, the types of urban habitats and the species that inhabit them are poorly documented.
Often, explanations for phenomena examined in the urban setting as well as predicting changes because of urbanization are the center for scientific research. Ecology has historically focused on "pristine" natural environments, but by the s many ecologists began to turn their interest towards ecological interactions taking place in, and caused by urban environments.
Forman and Godron's book Landscape Ecology  first distinguished urban settings and landscapes from other landscapes by dividing all landscapes into five broad types.
These types were divided by the intensity of human influence ranging from pristine natural environments to urban centers. Urban ecology is recognized as a diverse and complex concept which differs in application between North America and Europe.
The European concept of urban ecology examines the biota of urban areas, the North American concept has traditionally examined the social sciences of the urban landscape,  as well as the ecosystem fluxes and processes,  and the Latin American concept examines the effect of human activity on the biodiversity and fluxes of urban ecosystems.
Since urban ecology is a subfield of ecology, many of the techniques are similar to that of ecology. Ecological study techniques have been developed over centuries, but many of the techniques use for urban ecology are more recently developed.
Methods used for studying urban ecology involve chemical and biochemical techniques, temperature recording, heat mapping remote sensing , and long-term ecological research sites. Chemical techniques may be used to determine pollutant concentrations and their effects.
Tests can be as simple as dipping a manufactured test strip, as in the case of pH testing, or be more complex, as in the case of examining the spatial and temporal variation of heavy metal contamination due to industrial runoff. Additionally, mercury bound in feathers was extracted from both live birds and from museum specimens to test for mercury levels across many decades.
Through these two different measurements, researchers were able to make a complex picture of the spread of mercury due to industrial runoff both spatially and temporally.
Other chemical techniques include tests for nitrates , phosphates , sulfates , etc. These biochemical fluxes are studied in the atmosphere e.
Temperature data can be used for various kinds of studies. An important aspect of temperature data is the ability to correlate temperature with various factors that may be affecting or occurring in the environment. These heat maps can be used to view trends and distribution over time and space. Remote sensing is the technique in which data is collected from distant locations through the use of satellite imaging, radar , and aerial photographs. In urban ecology, remote sensing is used to collect data about terrain, weather patterns, light, and vegetation.
One application of remote sensing for urban ecology is to detect the productivity of an area by measuring the photosynthetic wavelengths of emitted light. Long-term ecological research LTER sites are research sites funded by the government that have collected reliable long-term data over an extended period of time in order to identify long-term climatic or ecological trends. These sites provide long-term temporal and spatial data such as average temperature, rainfall and other ecological processes.
The main purpose of LTERs for urban ecologists is the collection of vast amounts of data over long periods of time. These long-term data sets can then be analyzed to find trends relating to the effects of the urban environment on various ecological processes, such as species diversity and abundance over time. Humans are the driving force behind urban ecology and influence the environment in a variety of ways, such as modifying land surfaces and waterways, introducing foreign species, and altering biogeochemical cycles.
Some of these effects are more apparent, such as the reversal of the Chicago River to accommodate the growing pollution levels and trade on the river.
Humans place high demand on land not only to build urban centers, but also to build surrounding suburban areas for housing. Land is also allocated for agriculture to sustain the growing population of the city. Expanding cities and suburban areas necessitate corresponding deforestation to meet the land-use and resource requirements of urbanization. Key examples of this are Deforestation in the United States and Brazil.
Along with manipulation of land to suit human needs, natural water resources such as rivers and streams are also modified in urban establishments. Modification can come in the form of dams, artificial canals, and even the reversal of rivers. Reversing the flow of the Chicago River is a major example of urban environmental modification.
Both local shipping and long-distance trade are required to meet the resource demands important in maintaining urban areas. Carbon dioxide emissions from the transport of goods also contribute to accumulating greenhouse gases and nutrient deposits in the soil and air of urban environments.
Introduced or alien species are populations of organisms living in a range in which they did not naturally evolve due to intentional or inadvertent human activity. Increased transportation between urban centers furthers the incidental movement of animal and plant species. Alien species often have no natural predators and pose a substantial threat to the dynamics of existing ecological populations in the new environment where they are introduced.
Such invasive species are numerous and include house sparrows , ring-necked pheasants , European starlings , brown rats , Asian carp , American bullfrogs , emerald ash borer , kudzu vines, and zebra mussels among numerous others, most notably domesticated animals.
Although, there seems to be a density threshold in which too much Lantana thus homogeneity in vegetation cover can lead to a decrease in bird species richness or abundance. Urbanization results in a large demand for chemical use by industry, construction, agriculture, and energy providing services. Such demands have a substantial impact on biogeochemical cycles , resulting in phenomena such as acid rain , eutrophication , and global warming.
Demand for fertilizers to meet agricultural needs exerted by expanding urban centers can alter chemical composition of soil.
Such effects often result in abnormally high concentrations of compounds including sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen, and heavy metals. In addition, nitrogen and phosphorus used in fertilizers have caused severe problems in the form of agricultural runoff, which alters the concentration of these compounds in local rivers and streams, often resulting in adverse effects on native species.
When the fertilizer chemicals from agricultural runoff reach the ocean, an algal bloom results, then rapidly dies off. A classic example is the dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico due to agricultural runoff into the Mississippi River. Just as pollutants and alterations in the biogeochemical cycle alter river and ocean ecosystems, they exert likewise effects in the air. Some stems from the accumulation of chemicals and pollution and often manifests in urban settings, which has a great impact on local plants and animals.
Because urban centers are often considered point sources for pollution, unsurprisingly local plants have adapted to withstand such conditions. Urban environments and outlying areas have been found to exhibit unique local temperatures, precipitation , and other characteristic activity due to a variety of factors such as pollution and altered geochemical cycles.
Some examples of the urban effects on climate are urban heat island , oasis effect , greenhouse gases , and acid rain. This further stirs the debate as to whether urban areas should be considered a unique biome. Despite common trends among all urban centers, the surrounding local environment heavily influences much of the climate.
One such example of regional differences can be seen through the urban heat island and oasis effect. The urban heat island is a phenomenon in which central regions of urban centers exhibit higher mean temperatures than surrounding urban areas.
Brazel et al. The heat island effect has corresponding ecological consequences on resident species. Greenhouse gas emissions include those of carbon dioxide and methane from the combustion of fossil fuels to supply energy needed by vast urban metropolises. Other greenhouse gases include water vapor, and nitrous oxide. Increases in greenhouse gases due to urban transport, construction, industry and other demands have been correlated strongly with increase in temperature.
Sources of methane are agricultural dairy cows   and landfills. Processes related to urban areas result in the emission of numerous pollutants, which change corresponding nutrient cycles of carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and other elements. High sulfur dioxide concentrations resulting from the industrial demands of urbanization cause rainwater to become more acidic. The urban environment has been classified as an anthropogenic biome ,  which is characterized by the predominance of certain species and climate trends such as urban heat island across many urban areas.
Research thus far indicates that, on a small scale, urbanization often increases the biodiversity of non-native species while reducing that of native species. This normally results in an overall reduction in species richness and increase in total biomass and species abundance. Urbanization also reduces diversity on a large scale. Urban stream syndrome is a consistently observed trait of urbanization characterized by high nutrient and contaminant concentration, altered stream morphology, increased dominance of dominant species, and decreased biodiversity   The two primary causes of urban stream syndrome are storm water runoff and wastewater treatment plant effluent.
Diversity is normally reduced at intermediate-low levels of urbanization but is always reduced at high levels of urbanization.
These effects have been observed in vertebrates and invertebrates while plant species tend to increase with intermediate-low levels of urbanization   but these general trends do not apply to all organisms within those groups.
There is also a geographical bias as most of the studies either took place in North America or Europe. The effects of urbanization also depend on the type and range of resources used by the organism.
Specialist species , those that use a narrow range of resources and can only cope with a narrow range of living conditions, are unlikely to cope with uniform environments. A study of bird species reported that urban species share dietary traits. The urban environment can decrease diversity through habitat removal and species homogenization —the increasing similarity between two previously distinct biological communities.
Habitat degradation and habitat fragmentation  reduces the amount of suitable habitat by urban development and separates suitable patches by inhospitable terrain such as roads , neighborhoods, and open parks. Wildlife in cities are more susceptible to suffering ill effects from exposure to toxicants such as heavy metals and pesticides.
The urban environment can also increase diversity in a number of ways. Many foreign organisms are introduced and dispersed naturally or artificially in urban areas. Artificial introductions may be intentional, where organisms have some form of human use, or accidental, where organisms attach themselves to transportation vehicles.
There are a variety of different habitats available within the urban environment as a result of differences in land use  allowing for more species to be supported than by more uniform habitats. Cities should be planned and constructed in such a way that minimizes the urban effects on the surrounding environment urban heat island, precipitation, etc.
For example, increasing the albedo , or reflective power, of surfaces in urban areas, can minimize urban heat island,   resulting in a lower magnitude of the urban heat island effect in urban areas.
By minimizing these abnormal temperature trends and others, ecological activity would likely be improved in the urban setting. Urbanization has indeed had a profound effect on the environment, on both local and global scales. Difficulties in actively constructing habitat corridor and returning biogeochemical cycles to normal raise the question as to whether such goals are feasible. However, some groups are working to return areas of land affected by the urban landscape to a more natural state.
It is becoming increasingly critical that conservation action be enabled within urban landscapes. Space in cities is limited; urban infill threatens the existence of green spaces. Green spaces that are in close proximity to cities are also vulnerable to urban sprawl. It is common that urban development comes at the cost of valuable land that could host wildlife species.
Natural and financial resources are limited; a larger focus must be placed on conservation opportunities that factor in feasibility and maximization of expected benefits.
Distributing responsabilities - Jon Lang's Urban Design
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Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Help expand a public dataset of research that support the SDGs. Design Studies is a leading international academic journal focused on developing understanding of design processes. It studies design activity across all domains of application, including engineering and product design, architectural and urban design, computer artefacts and systems design. It therefore It therefore provides an interdisciplinary forum for the analysis, development and discussion of fundamental aspects of design activity, from cognition and methodology to values and philosophy.
Urban Design: A Typology of Procedures and Products, 2nd Edition provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to Preface to the Second Edition.
Urban Design. A Typology of Procedures and Products (second edition)
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This article consists of two parts. The first part suggests a typology for urban design theories in order to provide a new way of understanding the nature and function of the, seemingly opposing, debates existing in the field. This typology is based on distinguishing between subjects, object and knowledge of urban design. In the second part, the typology is applied to the shared body of knowledge.
Urban ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment. The urban environment refers to environments dominated by high-density residential and commercial buildings, paved surfaces , and other urban-related factors that create a unique landscape dissimilar to most previously studied environments in the field of ecology. Urban ecology is a recent field of study compared to ecology as a whole. The methods and studies of urban ecology are similar to and comprise a subset of ecology. However, the types of urban habitats and the species that inhabit them are poorly documented. Often, explanations for phenomena examined in the urban setting as well as predicting changes because of urbanization are the center for scientific research.
Section of the Clean Water Act defines green infrastructure as "
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