File Name: health and safety at work act 1974 full quran.zip
Occupational safety and health is concerned with all aspects of physical, mental and social health and safety of employees. Being a labor-related issue, in every country there are number of legislations that ensure the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work.
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Essay on bahrain national day
It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Somaliland [b] to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa 's mainland. Somalia has an estimated population of around 15 million   and has been described as Africa's most culturally homogeneous country.
Ethnic minorities are largely concentrated in the south. In antiquity, Somalia was an important commercial center. The Supreme Revolutionary Council seized power in and established the Somali Democratic Republic , which collapsed 22 years later, in , with the onset of the Somali Civil War.
During this period most regions returned to customary and religious law. In the early s, a number of interim federal administrations were created. By mid, the insurgents had lost most of the territory they had seized, and a search for more permanent democratic institutions began. Somalia has been inhabited since at least the Paleolithic period. During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic -speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic period from the family's proposed urheimat "original homeland" in the Nile Valley ,  or the Near East.
The Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia dates back approximately 5, years, and has rock art depicting both wild animals and decorated cows. The rock art is dated to 1, to 3, BCE. Each painting has an inscription below it, which collectively have been estimated to be around 2, years old. Ancient pyramidical structures, mausoleums , ruined cities and stone walls, such as the Wargaade Wall , are evidence of an old civilization that once thrived in the Somali peninsula.
In the classical era , the Macrobians , who may have been ancestral to Somalis, established a powerful tribal kingdom that ruled large parts of modern Somalia. They were reputed for their longevity and wealth, and were said to be the "tallest and handsomest of all men". According to Herodotus' account, the Persian Emperor Cambyses II , upon his conquest of Egypt in BC, sent ambassadors to Macrobia, bringing luxury gifts for the Macrobian king to entice his submission.
The Macrobian ruler, who was elected based on his stature and beauty, replied instead with a challenge for his Persian counterpart in the form of an unstrung bow: if the Persians could manage to draw it, they would have the right to invade his country; but until then, they should thank the gods that the Macrobians never decided to invade their empire.
From there, it spread to Egypt and the Maghreb. They used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the beden to transport their cargo. After the Roman conquest of the Nabataean Empire and the Roman naval presence at Aden to curb piracy, Arab and Somali merchants agreed with the Romans to bar Indian ships from trading in the free port cities of the Arabian peninsula  to protect the interests of Somali and Arab merchants in the lucrative commerce between the Red and Mediterranean Seas.
The source of the cinnamon and other spices is said to have been the best-kept secret of Arab and Somali merchants in their trade with the Roman and Greek world; the Romans and Greeks believed the source to have been the Somali peninsula. Islam was introduced to the area early on by the first Muslims of Mecca fleeing prosecution during the first Hejira with Masjid al-Qiblatayn in Zeila being built before the Qiblah towards Mecca.
It is one of the oldest mosques in Africa. It was thus flanked to the south by the Ajuran Empire and to the west by the Abyssinian Empire.
In , the Zeila-based King of Adal was slain in a military campaign aimed at halting Abyssinian emperor Amda Seyon I 's march toward the city. Adal's headquarters were again relocated the following century, this time southward to Harar. From this new capital, Adal organised an effective army led by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi Ahmad "Gurey" or "Gran"; both meaning "the left-handed" that invaded the Abyssinian empire.
During the Ajuran Sultanate period, the sultanates and republics of Merca , Mogadishu , Barawa , Hobyo and their respective ports flourished and had a lucrative foreign commerce, with ships sailing to and coming from Arabia, India, Venetia ,  Persia, Egypt, Portugal, and as far away as China. Vasco da Gama , who passed by Mogadishu in the 15th century, noted that it was a large city with houses several storeys high and large palaces in its centre, in addition to many mosques with cylindrical minarets.
In the 16th century, Duarte Barbosa noted that many ships from the Kingdom of Cambaya in modern-day India sailed to Mogadishu with cloth and spices, for which they in return received gold, wax and ivory. Barbosa also highlighted the abundance of meat, wheat, barley, horses, and fruit on the coastal markets, which generated enormous wealth for the merchants. Trading relations were established with Malacca in the 15th century,  with cloth, ambergris and porcelain being the main commodities of the trade.
In the early modern period, successor states to the Adal Sultanate and Ajuran Sultanate began to flourish in Somalia. They continued the tradition of castle-building and seaborne trade established by previous Somali empires.
His army came out victorious during the Bardheere Jihad, which restored stability in the region and revitalized the East African ivory trade. He also received presents from and had cordial relations with the rulers of neighbouring and distant kingdoms such as the Omani, Witu and Yemeni Sultans.
Sultan Ibrahim's son Ahmed Yusuf succeeded him and was one of the most important figures in 19th-century East Africa, receiving tribute from Omani governors and creating alliances with important Muslim families on the East African coast.
The Gerads and the Bari Sultans built impressive palaces and fortresses and had close relations with many different empires in the Near East.
In the late 19th century, after the Berlin Conference of , European powers began the Scramble for Africa , which inspired the Dervish leader Mohammed Abdullah Hassan to unify 'Iid and Nugaal and begin one of the longest colonial resistance wars in history. He soon acquired weapons from the Ottoman Empire, Sudan, other Islamic and Arabian countries, and appointed ministers and advisers to administer different areas or sectors of Somalia.
In addition, he gave a clarion call for 'Iid and Nugaal 's unity and independence,  in the process of organizing his forces. It was characterized by a rigid hierarchy and centralization. Though Hassan threatened to drive the Christians into the sea, he executed the first attack by launching his first major military offensive with 1, Dervish equipped with 20 modern rifles on the British soldiers stationed in the region.
He repulsed the British in four expeditions and had relations with the Central Powers of the Ottomans and the Germans. In , the Dervish movement collapsed after intensive aerial bombardments by Britain, and Dervish territories were subsequently turned incorporated into the British protectorate.
The dawn of fascism in the early s heralded a change of strategy for Italy, as the north-eastern sultanates were soon to be forced within the boundaries of La Grande Somalia according to the plan of Fascist Italy.
Italy had access to these areas under the successive protection treaties, but not direct rule. The Fascist government had direct rule only over the Benadir territory. Fascist Italy , under Benito Mussolini , attacked Abyssinia Ethiopia in , with an aim to colonize it.
The invasion was condemned by the League of Nations , but little was done to stop it or to liberate occupied Ethiopia. On 3 August , Italian troops, including Somali colonial units, crossed from Ethiopia to invade British Somaliland , and by 14 August, succeeded in taking Berbera from the British. A British force, including troops from several African countries, launched the campaign in January from Kenya to liberate British Somaliland and Italian-occupied Ethiopia and conquer Italian Somaliland.
They were assisted by Somali forces led by Abdulahi Hassan with Somalis of the Isaaq , Dhulbahante , and Warsangali clans prominently participating. To the extent that Italy held the territory by UN mandate, the trusteeship provisions gave the Somalis the opportunity to gain experience in Western political education and self-government.
These were advantages that British Somaliland, which was to be incorporated into the new Somali state, did not have. Although in the s British colonial officials attempted, through various administrative development efforts, to make up for past neglect, the protectorate stagnated in political administrative development. The disparity between the two territories in economic development and political experience would later cause serious difficulties integrating the two parts. Meanwhile, in , under pressure from their World War II allies and to the dismay of the Somalis,  the British returned the Haud an important Somali grazing area that was presumably protected by British treaties with the Somalis in and and the Somali Region to Ethiopia, based on a treaty they signed in in which the British ceded Somali territory to the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik in exchange for his help against possible advances by the French.
Britain included the conditional provision that the Somali residents would retain their autonomy, but Ethiopia immediately claimed sovereignty over the area. This prompted an unsuccessful bid by Britain in to buy back the Somali lands it had turned over. A referendum was held in neighbouring Djibouti then known as French Somaliland in , on the eve of Somalia's independence in , to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France.
The referendum turned out in favour of a continued association with France, largely due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar ethnic group and resident Europeans. The majority of those who voted 'no' were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi , Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later. On 1 July , the two territories united to form the Somali Republic , albeit within boundaries drawn up by Italy and Britain.
On 20 July and through a popular referendum , was ratified popularly by the people of Somalia under Italian trusteeship, But most of the people from the former Somaliland Protectorate didn't participated the referendum, due to the marginalization graveness made on their rights of power sharing of the unity government. Egal would later become the President of the autonomous Somaliland region in northwestern Somalia.
On 15 October , while paying a visit to the northern town of Las Anod , Somalia's then President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke was shot dead by one of his own bodyguards.
The revolutionary army established large-scale public works programs and successfully implemented an urban and rural literacy campaign, which helped dramatically increase the literacy rate. In addition to a nationalization program of industry and land, the new regime's foreign policy placed an emphasis on Somalia's traditional and religious links with the Arab world , eventually joining the Arab League in February, The SRSP was an attempt to reconcile the official state ideology with the official state religion by adapting Marxist precepts to local circumstances.
Emphasis was placed on the Muslim principles of social progress, equality and justice, which the government argued formed the core of scientific socialism and its own accent on self-sufficiency, public participation and popular control, as well as direct ownership of the means of production. While the SRSP encouraged private investment on a limited scale, the administration's overall direction was essentially communist.
In July , the Ogaden War broke out after Barre's government used a plea for national unity to justify an aggressive incorporation of the predominantly Somali-inhabited Ogaden region of Ethiopia into a Pan-Somali Greater Somalia , along with the rich agricultural lands of south-eastern Ethiopia, infrastructure, and strategically important areas as far north as Djibouti.
After the siege of Harar, a massive unprecedented Soviet intervention consisting of 20, Cuban forces and several thousand Soviet experts came to the aid of Ethiopia's communist Derg regime. By , the Somali troops were ultimately pushed out of the Ogaden.
This shift in support by the Soviet Union motivated the Barre government to seek allies elsewhere. It eventually settled on the Soviets' Cold War arch-rival, the United States , which had been courting the Somali government for some time.
All in all, Somalia's initial friendship with the Soviet Union and later partnership with the United States enabled it to build the largest army in Africa. A new constitution was promulgated in under which elections for a People's Assembly were held. Many Somalis had become disillusioned with life under military dictatorship.
The regime was weakened further in the s as the Cold War drew to a close and Somalia's strategic importance was diminished. The government became increasingly authoritarian , and resistance movements , encouraged by Ethiopia, sprang up across the country, eventually leading to the Somali Civil War. The moral authority of Barre's government was gradually eroded, as many Somalis became disillusioned with life under military rule.
By the mids, resistance movements supported by Ethiopia's communist Derg administration had sprung up across the country. Barre responded by ordering punitive measures against those he perceived as locally supporting the guerrillas, especially in the northern regions. The clampdown included bombing of cities, with the northwestern administrative centre of Hargeisa , a Somali National Movement SNM stronghold, among the targeted areas in During , in the capital city of Mogadishu, the residents were prohibited from gathering publicly in groups greater than three or four.
Fuel shortages caused long lines of cars at petrol stations. Inflation had driven the price of pasta ordinary dry Italian noodles, a staple at that time to five U. The price of khat , imported daily from Kenya, was also five U. Paper currency notes were of such low value that several bundles were needed to pay for simple restaurant meals. A thriving black market existed in the centre of the city as banks experienced shortages of local currency for exchange.
At night, the city of Mogadishu lay in darkness. Close monitoring of all visiting foreigners was in effect. Harsh exchange control regulations were introduced to prevent export of foreign currency.
Promoting Behavior Based Safety with Islamic Principles
While we are building a new and improved webshop, please click below to purchase this content via our partner CCC and their Rightfind service. You will need to register with a RightFind account to finalise the purchase. Objective Muslim World Journal of Human Rights promises to serve as a forum in which barriers are bridged or at least, addressed , and human rights are finally discussed with an eye on the Muslim world, in an open and creative manner. The choice to name the journal, Muslim World Journal of Human Rights reflects a desire to examine human rights issues related not only to Islam and Islamic law, but equally those human rights issues found in Muslim societies that stem from various other sources such as socio-economic and political factors, as well the interaction and intersections of the two areas. MWJHR welcomes submissions that apply the traditional human right framework in their analysis as well as those that transcend the boundaries of contemporary scholarship in this regard.
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Since its establishment, NIH has been dedicatedly contributing to the health sector of Pakistan.
The United Kingdom established its presence in South Asia in the early part of the 17th century. In , the administration of the country was handed over to the British government. Opposition to British rule began at the turn of the 20th century. Although vigorous efforts were made to include Muslims in the Indian nationalist movement, concern for Muslim political rights led to the formation of the Muslim League in
It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti  to the Northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa 's mainland. Somalia has an estimated population of around 15 million   and has been described as Africa's most culturally homogeneous country.
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Tarkeeb E Nahvi Pdf input controls i. Final Exam — The final exam will be posted on the course website and sent as an e-mail attachment according to the schedule provided. Asaatidhah wishing to teach Tarkeeb to their students may make use of this Kitaab, as we have endeavoured to write it in a clear, concise manner. Solutions will be distributed. Look at most relevant Urdu grammar tarkeeb e nabvi websites out of at KeywordSpace. Contact Information—————- 2.
It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Somaliland [b] to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa 's mainland. Somalia has an estimated population of around 15 million   and has been described as Africa's most culturally homogeneous country. Ethnic minorities are largely concentrated in the south. In antiquity, Somalia was an important commercial center.
Dignity is the right of a person to be valued and respected for their own sake, and to be treated ethically. It is of significance in morality , ethics , law and politics as an extension of the Enlightenment -era concepts of inherent, inalienable rights. The term may also be used to describe personal conduct, as in "behaving with dignity". English-speakers often use the word "dignity" in prescriptive and cautionary ways: for example, in politics it can be used to critique the treatment of oppressed and vulnerable groups and peoples, but it has also been applied to cultures and sub-cultures , to religious beliefs and ideals, and even to animals used for food or research. In general, the term has various functions and meanings depending on how the term is used and on the context. In ordinary modern usage, the word denotes " respect " and " status ", and it is often used to suggest that someone is not receiving a proper degree of respect, or even that they are failing to treat themselves with proper self-respect.
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This method of slaughtering lawful animals has several conditions to be fulfilled. The name of God or "In the name of God" Bismillah has to be called by the butcher upon slaughter of each halal animal separately, and it should consist of a swift, deep incision with a very sharp knife on the throat, cutting the wind pipe , jugular veins and carotid arteries of both sides but leaving the spinal cord intact. The method is used to comply with conditions stated in the Quran and in Islamic tradition.
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We further draw upon social exchange theory to explore rational reciprocity i. African cultures are considerably similar, mainly in terms of the pervasive preference of the African people for community life Agulanna ; Mbigi ; Menkiti