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Mobile phone use while driving is common but it is widely considered dangerous due to its potential for causing distracted driving and crashes. Due to the number of crashes that are related to conducting calls on a phone and texting while driving, some jurisdictions have made the use of calling on a phone while driving illegal. Many jurisdictions have enacted laws to ban handheld mobile phone use.
Nevertheless, many jurisdictions allow use of a hands-free device. Driving while using a hands-free device is not safer than using a handheld phone to conduct calls, as concluded by case-crossover studies,   epidemiological,   simulation,  and meta-analysis.
In addition to voice calling , activities such as texting while driving , web browsing , playing video games , or phone use in general can also increase the risk of a crash. In the United States, automobile crashes due to distracted driving are increasing. The leading cause of distracted driving is cell phones. In , six hundred and sixty thousand drivers in the United States were estimated to use cell phones each day, while driving behind the wheel during daylight hours.
Cell phone use while driving has become a leading cause of vehicle crashes over the last two decades. Drivers are distracted, decreasing the driver's awareness on the road, leading to more car crashes. When drivers talk on cell phones the risk of an automobile crash resulting in hospitalization is four times higher than when not talking on a cell phone. Questionnaires were sent to , drivers and analysis was done on the 36, who responded.
The questionnaire asked about driving habits, risk exposure, collisions over the past 24 months, socio-demographic information, and cell phone use. Questionnaires were supported with data from cell phone companies and crash records held by police.
The study found that the overall relative risk RR of having a crash for cell phone users when compared to non-cell phone users averaged 1.
When adjusted for distance driven per year and other crash risk exposures, RR was 1. They also found that increased cell phone use correlated with an increase in RR. When the same data were reanalyzed using a Bayesian approach, the calculated RR of 0.
When the data were reanalyzed using case-crossover analysis, RR was calculated at a much higher 5. The authors expressed concern that misclassification of phone call and cell phone usage is due to reporting errors of the exact time of the collisions was a major source of bias with all case-crossover analysis of this issue. The NHTSA considers distracted driving to include some of the following as distractions: other occupants in the car, eating, drinking, smoking, adjusting radio, adjusting environmental control, reaching for object in car, and cell phone use.
In in the US, there was a reported 5, people killed by distracted drivers. Of those were considered to be killed by drivers distracted by cell phones. The report doesn't state whether this under or over represents the level of cell phone use amongst drivers, and whether there is a causal relationship.
Of distraction-related crashes, cell phone use may range from 1. A study by the University of Utah psychology department measured response time, following distance, and driving speed of a control group, subjects at the legal blood alcohol content BAC limit of 0.
As the study notes; " Across these three studies, participants performed in both baseline and cell phone conditions. Two of the participants in our studies were involved in a crash in baseline conditions, whereas 10 participants were involved in a crash when they were conversing on a cell phone.
After controlling for driving difficulty and time on task, the study concluded that cell phone drivers exhibited greater impairment than drunk drivers. A key finding was that: "No studies were found that directly address and resolve the issue of whether a causal relation exists between cellular telephone use while operating a motor vehicle and motor vehicle collisions. In the US, the number of cell phone subscribers has increased by 1, In approximately the same period the number of crashes has fallen by 0.
Driving while using a handsfree cellular device is not safer than using a hand held cell phone, as concluded by case-crossover studies,   epidemiological,   simulation,  and meta-analysis. In a number of cases, it has been shown that bans on mobile use while driving have proven to be an effective way to deter people from picking up their phones.
Those violating the ban usually face fines and points on their licence. In the UK using a mobile phone while driving has been illegal since , unless it is in a handsfree kit. The fine increase was not at all effective at stopping motorists from using their phones while driving. Possibly the most important factor was the increasing lack of enforcement of the ban by the police. Both increased smartphone sales and lack of enforcement created a situation where in which it was acceptable to use your phone while driving again, yet having being illegal for over 13 years.
The biggest detriment would be for newly qualified drivers who have passed their driving tests within the last two years. The scientific literature is mixed on the dangers of talking on a cell phone versus those of talking with a passenger. The common conception is that passengers are able to better regulate conversation based on the perceived level of danger, therefore the risk is negligible.
A study by a University of South Carolina psychology researcher featured in the journal, Experimental Psychology, found that planning to speak and speaking put far more demands on the brain's resources than listening. Measurement of attention levels showed that subjects were four times more distracted while preparing to speak or speaking than when they were listening.
The number of questions asked averaged slightly higher for mobile phone conversations, although results were not constant across road types and largely influenced by a large number of questions on the urban roads.
A simulation study that compared passenger and cell-phone conversations concluded that the driver performs better when conversing with a passenger because the traffic and driving task become part of the conversation. Drivers holding conversations on cell phones were four times more likely to miss the highway exit than those with passengers, and drivers conversing with passengers showed no statistically significant difference from lone drivers in the simulator.
In contrast, the University of Illinois meta-analysis concluded that passenger conversations were just as costly to driving performance as cell phone ones.
It concluded that drivers' training should address the hazards of both mobile phone and passenger conversations. The scientific literature on the dangers of driving while sending a text message from a mobile phone, or texting while driving , is limited. A simulation study at the Monash University Accident Research Centre has provided strong evidence that both retrieving and, in particular, sending text messages has a detrimental effect on a number of critical driving tasks.
Specifically, negative effects were seen in detecting and responding correctly to road signs, detecting hazards, time spent with eyes off the road, and only for sending text messages lateral position. Surprisingly, mean speed, speed variability, lateral position when receiving text messages, and following distance showed no difference. The low number of scientific studies may be indicative of a general assumption that if talking on a mobile phone increases risk, then texting also increases risk, and probably more so.
Texting while driving received greater attention in the late s, corresponding to a rise in the number of text messages being sent. Over a year approximately 2, teens die from texting while driving. Investigations revealed that the engineer of that train had sent 45 text messages while operating.
Two studies, comprising about long-haul trucks driving 3 million combined miles, used video cameras to observe the drivers and road; researchers observed "4, safety-critical events, which includes crashes, near-crashes, crash-relevant conflicts, and unintended lane deviations.
Text messaging had the greatest relative risk , with drivers being 23 times more likely to experience a safety-critical event when texting.
The study also found that drivers typically take their eyes off the forward roadway for an average of four out of six seconds when texting, and an average of 4. In it was reported that, according to a national survey in the US, the number of drivers who reported using their cellphones to access the internet while driving had risen to nearly one of four.
A study conducted by the University of Vienna using the theory of planned behavior identified two key determinants of high-level mobile phone use.
Those two factors, subjective norm i. Mobile phone use while driving has economic impacts. Using a mobile phone while driving can definitely have economic costs to the driver using the phone ex. More interesting however is how a driver's mobile phone use while driving can have external effects on both other drivers' safety and other drivers' economic property.
Specifically, mobile phone use while driving produces negative consumption externalities where the consumer's driver's use of the phone while driving can reduce the well-being of others who are not paid by the consumer i. Mobile phone use can cause drivers to take their eyes off the road, minds off the road, and hands off the steering wheel.
The negative consumption externalities produced from mobile phone use while driving not only affects others on the road but also causes economic inefficiencies.
Externalities are a form of market failure where, by definition, the market fails to deliver an efficient outcome. Figure 1 details the effects of this negative externality. In this case, the market quantity is too high where there are too many that use their mobile phone while driving.
To overcome this inefficiency, governments often must get involved and regulate price or quantity. While there is no feasible way to ensure that driver's attention remains sufficiently focused on driving, there are ways that the government can intervene legislatively to discourage drivers from engaging in behaviors that potentially distract them from driving.
An illustration of this intervention can be found below Figure 2 where, in this case, the government has the ability to fine or ticket those who use a phone while driving in order to reduce the number of distracted drivers on the road. As illustrated, the market quantity Q of distracted driver's produced by mobile phone use while driving is too high and the socially optimal point for society is lower. The negative consumption externalities caused by mobile phone use while driving, as shown, has economic costs.
Not only does mobile phone use while driving jeopardize safety for the driver, anyone in the car, or others on the road but it also produces economic costs to all parties involved.
As shown, these costs are best managed with government intervention through policy or legislation changes. Ticketing is often the best choice as it affects only those who are caught performing the illegal act. Ticketing is another cost induced from mobile phone use and driving because ticketing laws for this act have only been put into place due to the large number of crashes caused by distracted drivers due to mobile phone use. Further, not only are the tickets costly to individuals who receive them but so is the price that must be paid to enforce the prohibition of mobile phone use while driving.
Key to the success of a legislative measure is the ability to maintain and sustain them through enforcement or the perception of enforcement. While paying tickets may be an undesired cost to pay by those who are given the ticket, ticket payments can actually have positive impacts in reducing the externality discussed above and increasing the total welfare of society. Ticket revenue often goes to state or local needs.
The effects of ticketing this negative consumption externality of mobile phone use while driving can be seen below. The graph shows the implementation of a ticket as having the same effect of a pigouvian tax. While this is the goal of the ticket, that is, to have the same effect of a pigouvian tax which is intended to correct an inefficient market outcome, and does so by being set equal to the social cost of the negative externalities, that us usually not the case of a ticket.
Tickets only affect those who receive the ticket while a tax effects all. The graphs shows ticket implementation as having the same effect as a pigouvian tax. This is the ideal revenue brought in by ticketing as that is the price burden that will bring the socially optimal quantity. While this is ideal, this is very unlikely to happen through ticketing because, with ticketing, one must factor in the probability of someone receiving the ticket and multiple that probability by the price.
The graph does not show this theoretical situation because the data of how often tickets are given for mobile phone use while driving is not conclusive. While ticketing can be tricky to apply, the revenue brought in by ticket is a benefit to society as it can be used for local and state needs and will help reduce the externality.
Crashes involving a driver being distracted by talking on a mobile phone have begun to be prosecuted as negligence similar to speeding. New Zealand has banned hand held cellphone use since 1 November Many states in the United States have banned texting on cell phones while driving.
Never have a picture of a well-adjusted person on the cover of your article or in it, unless that person has won the Nobel Prize. If you must include a person from the area, make sure you get one holding four, or better still, five AKs. Everyone is a bandit. The carjacker is a bandit. The fast-talking man who cons you out of your money is a bandit. The mathe at the market who refuses to bargain is a bandit.
Mobile phone use while driving is common but it is widely considered dangerous due to its potential for causing distracted driving and crashes. Due to the number of crashes that are related to conducting calls on a phone and texting while driving, some jurisdictions have made the use of calling on a phone while driving illegal. Many jurisdictions have enacted laws to ban handheld mobile phone use. Nevertheless, many jurisdictions allow use of a hands-free device. Driving while using a hands-free device is not safer than using a handheld phone to conduct calls, as concluded by case-crossover studies,   epidemiological,   simulation,  and meta-analysis. In addition to voice calling , activities such as texting while driving , web browsing , playing video games , or phone use in general can also increase the risk of a crash.
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Article Type: Research Article. Received Date: 21 June Accepted Date: 27 July
Drinking driving is responsible for a high proportion of traffic accidents. The investigation results revealed that alcohol affected drivers in many aspects, including attitude, judgment, vigilance, perception, reaction, and controlling. The analysis of accident rate showed that higher BAC level would lead to higher accident rate. The statistical analysis results of driving performance indicated that average speed, speed standard deviation, and lane position standard deviation were significantly higher under the influence of alcohol.
The development of urban planning
As a public university that receives substantial support from the state legislature, the U has an obligation to serve the people of the state of Utah. However, there can be disagreements on what that service means. Where do you come down? Of course, cohesion is good in any communication medium, and each medium can present challenges for it. But in both those cases, you can quickly and easily clear up the confusion. Speech and texting are more or less synchronous media: that is, they involve people communicating at the same time and often in the same virtual space. It also requires an important trade-off.
Keywords: early literacy; songs; rhymes; environmental print; assessment; group work; shared reading. What should a successful reader and writer know and be able to do? As a teacher, you need to be able to answer this question so that you can guide your pupils. Learning to read and write successfully takes practice. Therefore, it is important to use a variety of approaches and activities that will keep pupils interested. This section explores these ideas as it looks at early literacy. Learning to read and write is hard work!
Urban planning , design and regulation of the uses of space that focus on the physical form, economic functions, and social impacts of the urban environment and on the location of different activities within it. Because urban planning draws upon engineering , architectural , and social and political concerns, it is variously a technical profession, an endeavour involving political will and public participation, and an academic discipline. Increasingly, the technology of geographic information systems GIS has been used to map the existing urban system and to project the consequences of changes. In the late 20th century the term sustainable development came to represent an ideal outcome in the sum of all planning goals. The modern origins of urban planning lie in a social movement for urban reform that arose in the latter part of the 19th century as a reaction against the disorder of the industrial city. Many visionaries of the period sought an ideal city, yet practical considerations of adequate sanitation, movement of goods and people, and provision of amenities also drove the desire for planning. Contemporary planners seek to balance the conflicting demands of social equity , economic growth , environmental sensitivity, and aesthetic appeal.
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Большой Брат, или Брат, как его обычно называла Мидж, - это аппарат Сентрекс-333, размещавшийся в крохотном, похожем на подсобку кабинетике рядом с директорскими апартаментами. Большой Брат был частью мира, в котором царила Мидж. Он получал информацию со 148 камер кабельного телевидения, 399 электронных дверей, 377 устройств прослушивания телефонов и еще 212 жучков, установленных по всему комплексу АНБ.
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