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What is Community Education?
The university role in community development: responding to challenges of globalisation. E-mail: ei ktu. The paper focuses on community development in the global world. Referring to the work of the American, West European and Lithuanian researchers, the notions of community and community development, as well as the university mission and role in community development in response to the challenges of globalisation are discussed.
To support the theoretical discussion, the paper ends with a case study about the participation of one of the largest Lithuanian universities, Kaunas University of Technology in community development. In the global world, information and knowledge have become a new source of welfare for nations.
The whole system of human values is changing, placing a major emphasis on knowledge as one of the key factors of social empowerment of individual. Individuals and society are participating in the globalisation processes, where knowledge is one of the key conditions of self-realisation and success and one of the key guarantees of social wellbeing. The paradigm of the new economy encompasses not only a learning individual, but also a learning community and a learning society institutions, companies.
Zeleny argues that the learning process is more important than what is learned. The global economy has replaced the Soviet era slogan 'Learn, learn, learn' with a new one 'Learn to learn', a requirement set by demands of the information society.
Globalisation is characterised not only by the globally oriented production, information and activities, but also by globalisation of human resources. Investment into human resource development has significantly increased. Development of human resources implies the development of individual's innate and acquired personal qualities, enhancement of systemic knowledge and exploitation of human capabilities Kazmierczak, Social and political change in Europe, increasing labour mobility, development of the new European social policy and increasingly global nature of the social problems had a profound effect on the socio-cultural and socio-educational work in community and on its objectives.
New trends in social development call for coping in creative and competent ways with poverty, social exclusion, discrimination, racism, destruction of the traditional social model and cultural and ethnical traditions. In recent years, significant attention in the research literature has been devoted to communities, community development in the modern world, the impact of future technologies on the social empowerment in the modern community, the influence of globalisation on the community development, the nature of community work in the 21 st century, and the methods and principles of community development Halal, ; Passing, ; Zisser, ; Smith and Babcook, ; Babacan and Gopalkrishnan, ; Appadurai, ; Brecher and Costello, ; Craig, ; Habermas, ; Kenny, ; also a number of Lithuanian authors - Grigas, ; Slapkauskas, ; Jacikevicius, ; Stoskus, ; Karalius, ; Leoncikas, ; Nefas, ; Barsauskiene and Leliugiene, , , and others.
Lithuanian researchers Juceviciene and Jucevicius , Kuzmickaite , and Dvarionas analyse the role of entrepreneurship in resolving the social problems of community and the learning city as one of the factors of community empowerment. The role of higher education as a provider of services and a potential stimulator of social empowerment of the community has been addressed by Western scholars Tjeldvoll , Kvil , Currie and Newson , Cummings , Burton , Marginson and Considine , Scott and others.
However, most of the researchers who deal with the issues of community development, community work and social empowerment, do not analyse them in relation to the role of higher education universities.
Those authors who discuss the idea of a service university Tjeldvoll, ; Waterhouse, do not address service provision as a way of university intervention into empowerment of communities especially, territorial ones in today's increasingly global world. In the global world, it is difficult to ensure efficient community development and social empowerment without exploitation of the intellectual resources possessed by universities as institutions of research and studies.
In this context, an important question is what role should be played by a modern university participating in community development in the context of challenges posed by globalisation.
To discuss the notions of community and community development. To show the role of university in community development. To present a case study featuring the participation of a specific university Kaunas University of Technology in community development.
In the community studies, monographs and research papers, one can find a number of definitions of community. Referring to Hillery, a Lithuanian sociologist Budvytis points out that this American scholar has found about 90 different definitions. According to Budvytis , researchers do not attempt to provide an exact community definition any more. They simply regard as community a certain territory with its inhabitants and their interrelationships. Communities emerge stimulated by a clear, specific purpose.
According to Tonnies , community is a primary form of social organisation which emerged on the basis of kinship and is characterised by immediate relations Slapkauskas, Virtas defines community as a group of individuals inhabiting a certain territory which are united by common interests, activities and other characteristics. Natorp argues that community is impossible without individual as well as individual cannot survive without community, and that education is impossible without interaction of these two subjects.
According to him, community means internal relationships between individuals. Its task is 'materialisation of values', i. In her discussion of the theoretical and practical aspects of community operation, Jodiene argues that community is a concept used for describing social relations in a group or certain territory Collins Educational Dictionary of Social Work, Also, community can be defined as an immediate environment of an employee, customer or agency which is analysed as a social system Johnson, Territorial community is a group of people who have common values and service institutions local government, health care institutions, schools, etc.
Geographical proximity can be understood on the national, regional, city or village level. In this paper, by territorial community we mean a city village community. Every territorial community is comprised of people and their groups, has a certain subculture and micro-socium as well as educational and confessional institutions, business organisations, etc. Hence, a territorial community can be analysed as a social environment with the problems characteristic to such environment.
In a survey on communities conducted by Nefas in Lithuanian municipalities, a question 'what is a community? The above definitions of community suggest that it develops stimulated by a clear, specific purpose. Its most important element is people with common interests. For example, confessional communities are gathered around a certain religion, ethic minority communities seek to preserve their ethnicity, etc.
At the end of the 20 th century, a number of scholars from Western countries Della-Pergola, ; Halal, ; Passig, ; Appadurai, ; Pilger, ; Mulgan, , and others attempted to identify the features of community development in the global world. Della-Pergola argues that ethnic, religious and social diversity, pluralism and multiculturalism have a direct influence on the prospects of community development.
International migration also impacts the development of territorial communities. According to Della-Pergola, an organised community and its institutions play an increasingly important role in today's societies. Halal points out that, according to research repeated every two years and lasting for ten years now, a revolution is taking place which has a profound effect on the development of communities, including the local ones.
Discussing the prospects of the development of social community, Passing argues that communities, especially the local ones, should not be afraid to change. However, according to this author, some community members are indifferent towards change. Many of them are of senior age, and they hardly feel themselves as a part of society because they are afraid of it. A useful approach to analysing the notions and features of community development is Appadurai's 'concept of the core' which enables 'drawing a sociological landscape of community development'.
The 'concept of the core' encompasses five dimensions: the ethno core, the information and knowledge dissemination core, the technological core, the ideological core and the financial core. A deeper analysis of these dimensions reveals various aspects of the global community development and community work. The global economic crisis raises demand for greater responsibility on the part of communities.
Community participation is increasingly being related to returning the responsibility for community development to the volunteer work sector, i. For example, Etzione defines communitarianism as people's responsibility for themselves, their community and neighbourhood.
Many social democratic governments in Western societies accepted these ideas as a justification for community participation. Summarising it can be argued that globalisation raises new tasks for community development, which can be defined as follows: community development implies purposeful efforts which are aimed at developing the competences of collective life and action.
These efforts can be of two types: 1 oriented directly at developing the competences; 2 directed at creating conditions for developing the competences in the community. Community development especially in case of the territorial communities requires competences in the following areas: partnership, organising, project development and management, entrepreneurship, harmonisation of the educational environment, multiculturalism and social work. The latter competence is closely related to the partnership competence which should be developed by special agents, i.
The above-mentioned community development competences can be acquired through close links with universities. Referring to the above discussion it can be argued that although the above-mentioned Western researchers represent universities and demonstrate high erudition in the area of community work and community development, they leave aside the role of higher education in developing and empowering communities.
At the same time, their community studies and theoretical models can be directly applied to community development. A number of scholars Tjeldvoll, ; Clark and Burton, ; Cummings and Willam, ; Margison and Considine, ; Waterhouse, focus on the role of universities as service institutions in society and community.
The purpose of the service university, according to Marginson and Considine , is to adopt the emerging key features of the higher education institution of a new type, and to open this institution for detailed study and debate. A service university, its organisational form and work methods are marked by great change: a contemporary university turns into a mediator between the researchers, who create a certain product, and the external world.
To define the service university as a certain phenomenon the above authors are using the terms of 'academic capitalism', 'entrepreneurial university' and 'corporate university'. A contemporary university, according to Marginson and Considine , has broad possibilities to implement new technologies in virtual ways.
In this sense, universities are both a cause and an effect of globalisation. At the same time, distance education and virtual universities can play a crucial role in reducing social exclusion in communities.
Universities are a part of the expanding market which is oriented to people and communities. Both academic community and local community have developed and became equal partners, which can be illustrated by creation of partnership networks between universities and communities, development of joint projects, etc.
Asbly quoted in Altbach et al. Already in the s it was noted that university is increasingly becoming a service provider, in addition to knowledge creation and dissemination Bowden and Marton, An entrepreneurial university is establishing external units which by flexibly collaborating with university departments conduct applied and contractual research Clark, , enabling them to understand the needs of the university environment.
Although the authors of the 'learning university' Bowden and Marton argue that by providing services to community, serving society and collaborating with it, university emphasises learning at the local community level, Markeviciene notes that while providing services at the local level, higher education institution at the same time gives a possibility to understand the modes of perception of other participants of the educational process.
In other words, it encompasses the shaping of the collective consciousness. In his discussion of the priorities of Oslo University, Tjeldvoll points out that it must use its knowledge for developing the society and community and for maintaining relations with the environment.
Oslo University is meeting government's expectations through various research related to the society life. Tjeldvoll claims that universities which seek service orientation are facing two key structural requirements:. They have to develop the channels of communication with possible stakeholders outside the university.
University management has to develop a human resource policy to motivate the best researchers to get involved into the service providing activities.
In the context of community development and empowerment, Waterhouse gives an interesting example of Derby University, where an organisation and infrastructure for meeting long-term community needs has been created.
This University is highly sensitive to the community expectations, which can be illustrated by organising various training courses e. Derby University provides significant intellectual help to community members who are involved in organising rural tourism and developing small business. Work of the above-mentioned scholars has provided a good background for further discussion of the university as a source of community development and its sustainable functioning.
In the view of the authors of this paper, a contemporary university performs many roles in community development, however the most crucial of them in the knowledge and information society are the following:. The role of educator is realised by university through the programmes of study, for example, by educating social educators and social workers for territorial communities.
An important role is played by continuing education courses, various retraining courses, seminars and courses for community workers, where university has sufficient competence to perform these functions.
Conducting community research is one of the important roles of university as a research institution. This kind of research enables university to diagnose and evaluate the level of community development and, based on the theoretical model created as a result of such research, to suggest strategies for further community development.
University as a bank of knowledge often performs the role of initiator of new ideas. It can be argued that intervention of the university, which regards providing versatile services to the community as its duty, can enable the development of community into a new quality - a learning community, where relevant conditions are created for development in the areas of IT, economic, educational, cultural, financial and human resources.
A common defining feature is that programmes and activities are developed in dialogue with communities and participants. The purpose of community learning and development is to develop the capacity of individuals and groups of all ages through their actions, the capacity of communities, to improve their quality of life. Central to this is their ability to participate in democratic processes. Community education encompasses all those occupations and approaches that are concerned with running education and development programmes within local communities, rather than within educational institutions such as schools, colleges and universities. The latter is known as the formal education system, whereas community education is sometimes called informal education. It has long been critical of aspects of the formal education system for failing large sections of the population in all countries and had a particular concern for taking learning and development opportunities out to poorer areas, although it can be provided more broadly.
Hamilton defined community development as. Moreland and Lovett see community development as a learning process that involves people in experiences from which they will learn ways of enhancing their capacity for self-directed activity and destiny. Draper, , p. Lotz identified two types of community -- the vertical or geographical one street, neighbourhood, or reserve , and the horizontal or non-geographical one teachers, farmers, and social classes.
LCD works to improve schools and the quality of education they deliver to build the capacity of district departments of education so that they can better meet the needs of their schools and communities. LCD also aims to support government education policy by using lessons learned at the grassroots level to inform national and regional strategies. In the context of its development work LCD delivers two programmes with a development education perspective. The second is a Global Teachers Programme GTP that provides a personal and professional development experience for teachers centred on a five week placement in an African school. This paper presents a brief overview of our educational programmes in Africa, of our development education programmes, and attempts to illustrate that these two aspects of our work are integrated, with each adding value to the other.
The university role in community development: responding to challenges of globalisation. E-mail: ei ktu. The paper focuses on community development in the global world.
Community Education is an effective way to respond to the challenge of improving education at the international, national and local levels of society. It expands the traditional roles of public schools by creating relationships between home, school, and community. Individuals enhance their lives and communities through Community Education, which provides opportunities for learning and collaboration. It impacts everyone from local community members, schools, government, families, neighbors, and the individual. At the heart of Community Education is the ability for an individual and the entire community to become lifelong learners. Through Community Education, citizens can develop relationships and problem solving skills to conquer the diverse challenges facing our society. Florida Atlantic University's Strategic Plan, is a comprehensive roadmap to guide FAU in achieving elevated performance and ranking in its key service areas.
In numerous polls and surveys, Americans identify education as one of the leading domestic challenges of the twenty-first century. Specifically, the challenge is not just to reform public schools but also to achieve the goal of academic success for all students. Many educational experts agree that reaching that goal will require increased cooperation among the schools themselves and a new kind of collaboration with the families and communities served by the schools. Community education offers a structured, effective way to respond to the challenge to improve public education because it expands the school's traditional role and creates a mutually interdependent relationship among home, school, and community. Community education has three basic components—lifelong learning opportunities, community involvement in schools, and efficient use of resources—and is based on a set of ten broad principles:. The current lack of confidence in public education has been more pervasive and prolonged than the crisis in confidence that followed the launch of Sputnik in by the Soviet Union.
Работайте, - поторопил Фонтейн. На ВР последняя стена стала уже тоньше яичной скорлупы. Джабба поднял брови. - Хорошо, это ничего не дает. Начнем вычитание. Я беру на себя верхнюю четверть пунктов, вы, Сьюзан, среднюю. Остальные - все, что внизу.
А-ах, - сладко потянулась. - Тем более приходи. Мы успеем выспаться перед поездкой на север. Дэвид грустно вздохнул: - Потому-то я и звоню. Речь идет о нашей поездке.
Это данные о сегодняшней производительности. Взгляни на число дешифровок. Бринкерхофф послушно следил за движениями ее пальца. КОЛИЧЕСТВО ДЕШИФРОВОК О Мидж постучала пальцем по этой цифре.
Не появится. - Но вы же позвонили… Стратмор позволил себе наконец засмеяться.
Он в последний раз бросил взгляд на труп на алюминиевой столешнице. Покойный лежал на спине, лицом вверх, освещаемый лампами дневного света, вроде бы ничего не скрывая. Беккер непроизвольно снова и снова вглядывался в его странно деформированные руки.
Сядь, - повторил коммандер, на этот раз тверже. - Выпустите меня! - Она испуганно смотрела на открытую дверь его кабинета. Стратмор понял, что она смертельно напугана. Он спокойно подошел к двери, выглянул на площадку лестницы и всмотрелся в темноту.
- Так вы говорите на языке цивилизованного мира. - Да вроде бы, - смущенно проговорил Беккер.