Natural Resources Of Jammu And Kashmir Pdf

natural resources of jammu and kashmir pdf

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The majority of the people of Jammu and Kashmir are engaged in subsistence agriculture of diverse kinds on terraced slopes, each crop adapted to local conditions. Rice, the staple crop, is planted in May and harvested in late September.

Jammu and Kashmir [a] was a region formerly administered by India as a state from to , constituting the southern and southeastern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India, Pakistan and China since the midth century. The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet , has been under Chinese control since

Jammu and Kashmir (state)

Jammu and Kashmir [a] was a region formerly administered by India as a state from to , constituting the southern and southeastern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India, Pakistan and China since the midth century. The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet , has been under Chinese control since After the Government of India repealed the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under Article of the Indian constitution in , the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act , which contained provisions that dissolved the state and reorganised it into two union territories — Jammu and Kashmir in the west and Ladakh in the east, with effect from 31 October At the time of its dissolution, Jammu and Kashmir was the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population.

The Indian-administered territories elected a constituent assembly in , which ratified the accession of the state to India in In —57, China constructed a road through the disputed Aksai Chin area of Ladakh. India's belated discovery of this road culminated in the Sino-Indian War of ; China has since administered Aksai Chin. In the late s, discontent over the high-handed policies of the union government and allegations of the rigging of the Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election [11] triggered a violent uprising and armed insurgency [12] [13] which was backed by Pakistan.

Since , a prolonged, bloody conflict between the Islamic militant separatists and the Indian Army took place, both of whom have been accused of widespread human rights abuses , including abductions, massacres, rapes and armed robbery. This was facilitated by a large influx of Islamic "Jihadi" fighters mujahadeen who had entered the Kashmir valley following the end of the Soviet—Afghan War in the s. Following the Kashmir unrest , secessionist movements in the region were boosted.

Responsibility for the attack was claimed by a Pakistan-backed militant group Jaish-e-Mohammed. In August , both houses of the Parliament of India passed resolutions to amend Article and extend the Constitution of India in its entirety to the state, which was implemented as a constitutional order by the President of India.

The reorganisation act was assented to by the President of India , and came into effect on 31 October The state of Jammu and Kashmir consisted of three divisions : the Jammu Division , the Kashmir Division and Ladakh which are further divided into 22 districts.

Jammu and Kashmir was the only state in India with a Muslim -majority population. The proportion of population that practised Islam fell to The state's official language was Urdu , which occupied a central space in media, education, religious and political discourses and the legislature of Jammu and Kashmir; the language functioned as a symbol of identity among Muslims of South Asia.

Additionally, several other languages, predominantly found in neighbouring regions, are also spoken by communities within Jammu and Kashmir: Bhattiyali , Chambeali , Churahi , Gaddi , Hindko , Lahul Lohar , Pangwali , Pattani , Sansi , and Shina. Jammu and Kashmir was the only state in India which had special autonomy under Article of the Constitution of India , according to which no law enacted by the Parliament of India , except for those in the field of defence, communication and foreign policy, would be extendable in Jammu and Kashmir unless it was ratified by the state legislature of Jammu and Kashmir.

Jammu and Kashmir was the only Indian state to have its own official state flag , along with India's national flag , [80] in addition to a separate constitution. Designed by the then ruling National Conference, the flag of Jammu and Kashmir featured a plough on a red background symbolising labour; it replaced the Maharaja's state flag.

The three stripes represented the three distinct administrative divisions of the state, namely Jammu, Valley of Kashmir, and Ladakh. Like all the states of India, Jammu and Kashmir had a multi-party democratic system of governance and had a bicameral legislature. At the time of drafting the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, seats were earmarked for direct elections from territorial constituencies.

Of these, 25 seats were reserved for the areas of Jammu and Kashmir state that came under Pakistani control; this was reduced to 24 after the 12th amendment of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir. In , an Armed Forces Special Powers Act of India, which gave special powers to the Indian security forces, including the detaining of individuals for up to two years without presenting charges, was enforced in Jammu and Kashmir, [88] [89] a decision which drew criticism from Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International for violating human rights.

The economy of Jammu and Kashmir was predominantly dependent on agriculture and related activities. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Former state administered by India. This article is about the former state. For the current union territory, see Jammu and Kashmir union territory. For the former princely state, see Jammu and Kashmir princely state. Bhadrawahi 0. Gojri 9. Hindi 2. Pahari 7. Kashmiri Siraji 0. Punjabi 1. Bauti 0.

Purkhi 0. Others 4. Geography portal Asia portal India portal. The Hindu. Archived from the original on 10 November Retrieved 23 February The Economic Times.

Press Trust of India. Archived from the original on 23 August Retrieved 31 August Retrieved 19 June The state is part of the larger region of Kashmir, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since the partition of the subcontinent in It has borders with Pakistan and China.

The Times of India. Retrieved 5 August Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 16 November Retrieved 12 January Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 6 January BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 10 April Archived from the original on 21 February Retrieved 22 February The Daily Telegraph.

The New York Times. Archived from the original on 31 December Retrieved 21 February Business Standard. Archived from the original on 5 June Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 22 May Retrieved 2 June Archived from the original on 9 May Militant Abuses".

Archived from the original on 27 May Archived from the original on 18 December Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 25 March Retrieved 31 December Archived from the original on 24 November The Pandits have preserved the threat letters sent to them. They have the audio and video evidence to show what happened. They have preserved the local newspapers through which they were warned to leave the Valley within 48 hours. This evidence also include still photographs of Pandits killed by militants and the desecrated temples.

The Indian News. Archived from the original on 22 March A year-old pregnant Gujjar woman has told police at the Baderwah Police Station in Jammu and Kashmir's Doda District that she was repeatedly gang raped by Lashkar-e-Toiba militants for two months. Notices are pasted on doors of Pandit houses, peremptorily asking the occupants to leave Kashmir within 24 hours or face death and worse Pandit Sarwanand Premi, year-old poet, and his son were kidnapped, tortured, their eyes gouged out, and hanged to death.

Another woman was abducted, raped and sliced into bits and pieces at a sawmill. Online edition of The Times of India, dated 17 August Archived from the original on 3 January Retrieved 28 January Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 5 May Archived from the original on 2 February

Agriculture in Jammu and Kashmir (Explained With Map and Statistics)

The agricultural processes of a region are directly controlled by the prevailing physical environmental condition temperature, precipitation, terrain, soil etc. Jammu and Kashmir is essentially a mountainous state in which only about 30 per cent of the reporting area is under cultivation. Agriculture is the mainstay of the people as it provides employment, directly or indirectly to about 70 per cent of the workforce. It contributes about 65 per cent of the state revenue which explains the overdependence of the state on agriculture. Land is, however, limited and therefore, its judicious utilization is necessary to meet the growing need of the tremendously increasing population and for the sustainability of soils, ecosystems and environment.


Mineral Resources. Jammu & Kashmir is the sole holder of country's borax and sapphire resources and possesses 36% graphite, 21% marble and 14% of.


Jammu and Kashmir (union territory)

Jammu and Kashmir [b] is a region administered by India as a union territory and consists of the southern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since , and between India and China since It lies to the north of the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and to the west of Ladakh , which is also subject to the dispute as a part of Kashmir, and administered by India as a union territory. Provisions for the formation of the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir were contained within the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, , which was passed by both houses of the Parliament of India in August The act re-constituted the former state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories, 'Jammu and Kashmir' and 'Ladakh', with effect from 31 October Jammu and Kashmir is named after the two regions it encompasses — the Jammu region and the Kashmir Valley.

On its eastern side, Azad Kashmir is separated from the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir part of Indian-administered Kashmir by the Line of Control LoC , which serves as the de facto border between the Indian- and Pakistani-controlled parts of Kashmir. The territory has a parliamentary form of government modelled after the British Westminster system , with the city of Muzaffarabad serving as its capital. The territory has its own Supreme Court and a High Court , while the Government of Pakistan 's Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Gilgit-Baltistan serves as a link between itself and Azad Jammu and Kashmir's government, although the autonomous territory is not represented in the Parliament of Pakistan. A major earthquake in killed at least , people and left another three million people displaced, causing widespread devastation to the region's infrastructure and economy. Since then, with help from the Government of Pakistan and foreign aid , reconstruction of infrastructure is underway.

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Jammu and Kashmir (union territory)

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Availability of raw materials and natural resources. • Tax incentives and exemptions. • Investment subsidies and other incentives. • Availability of finance at.


Вы можете сказать, откуда звонили? - Он проклинал себя за то, что не выяснил этого раньше. Телефонистка нервно проглотила слюну. - На этой машине нет автоматического определителя номера, сэр.

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 Ничего серьезного, - ответила Сьюзан, хотя вовсе не была в этом уверена. Следопыт задерживается.

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Jammu and Kashmir [b] is a region administered by India as a union territory and consists of the southern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since , and between India and China since

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Jammu & Kashmir: The State Profile is prepared by PHD Chamber of lush green forests, which forms one of the most important natural resources of the state.

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Request PDF | Conservation of Indigenous Natural Resources of Jammu and Kashmir State | The indigenous plants are national wealth and being used since​.

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