File Name: urbanization and population growth .zip
Urbanization or urbanisation refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas , the decrease in the proportion of people living in rural areas , and the ways in which societies adapt to this change. Although the two concepts are sometimes used interchangeably, urbanization should be distinguished from urban growth. Whereas urbanization refers to the proportion of the total national population living in areas classified as urban, urban growth strictly refers to the absolute number of people living in those areas. Urbanization is relevant to a range of disciplines, including urban planning , geography , sociology , architecture , economics , and public health.
PIP: Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries--especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility.
Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs.
Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil.
Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society's responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life--one with dignity. Abstract PIP: Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries--especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world.
This paper discusses the influences on food and farming of an increasingly urbanized world and a declining ratio of food producers to food consumers. Urbanization has been underpinned by the rapid growth in the world economy and in the proportion of gross world product and of workers in industrial and service enterprises. Globally, agriculture has met the demands from this rapidly growing urban population, including food that is more energy-, land-, water- and greenhouse gas emission-intensive. But hundreds of millions of urban dwellers suffer under-nutrition. So the key issues with regard to agriculture and urbanization are whether the growing and changing demands for agricultural products from growing urban populations can be sustained while at the same time underpinning agricultural prosperity and reducing rural and urban poverty. To this are added the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to build resilience in agriculture and urban development to climate change impacts.
Figure Urbanization and Per Capita GDP in the United States, – Source: U.S. Census, apaei-essonnesud.org;.
By , that figure will have risen to 6. Belief in this global transition, known as urbanization, is exemplified by the statements above from two of the most important sustainability documents released this decade. This trend toward population densification has farreaching implications for environmental, economic, and social sustainability efforts around the globe. Population density within urban areas also reduces the per capita energy demand of transportation and resource distribution.
Urbanization: An Environmental Force to Be Reckoned With
While people are moving from place to place more and more, the world is undergoing the largest wave of urban growth in history. Consequently, city dwellers are at risk of damaging health issues, such as waterborne illnesses like diarrheal disease, one of the leading causes of death among children under the age of five. Residents of slums and informal settlements suffer from poor housing, inadequate access to safe water and sanitation, overcrowding, and a constant risk of being removed from their homes. A lack of investments and political will to improve these informal settlements has created enduring problems for slum dwellers. With more people moving away from city centers, new construction can destroy wildlife habitat and introduce invasive plants and animals. Additionally, the dependency on cars intensifies noise, traffic, air pollution, and reduces the potential for exercise.
Human beings have become an increasingly powerful environmental force over the last 10, years. With the advent of agriculture 8, years ago, we began to change the land. The level and growth of urbanization differ considerably by region see Figure 1. Among developing countries, Latin American countries have the highest proportion of their population living in urban areas. But East and South Asia are likely to have the fastest growth rates in the next 30 years. Almost all of future world population growth will be in towns and cities.
The promise of jobs and prosperity, among other factors, pulls people to cities. Half of the global population already lives in cities, and by two-thirds of the world's people are expected to live in urban areas. But in cities two of the most pressing problems facing the world today also come together: poverty and environmental degradation. Poor air and water quality, insufficient water availability, waste-disposal problems, and high energy consumption are exacerbated by the increasing population density and demands of urban environments. Strong city planning will be essential in managing these and other difficulties as the world's urban areas swell. All rights reserved.
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PIP: Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries--especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age.
Population growth is an important factor for local environment change. More importantly, the consumption level and the technology assume to play a vital role in the overall environmental change. Ehrlich and Ehrlich argue that population growth causes a disproportionate negative impact on the environment. Commoner et al in their study conclude that though population plays role in environmental deterioration, it is by no means only a major factor of environmental crisis. The technology factor plays a much more significant role in the ecological crisis.
This paper analyzes a dual economy consisting of urban market areas and less developed rural areas with or without local markets. Urban areas have better opportunities for earnings and education than rural areas. Rural families choose whether to move to urban areas at costs that differ from location to location. As per capita output grows relative to the moving cost, urbanization proceeds, leading to lower fertility, more investments in human and physical capital per child relative to output per worker, and faster economic growth.
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However, urban settings are a relatively new phenomenon in human history. This transition has transformed the way we live, work, travel and build networks.
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