Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Principle And Instrumentation Pdf

atomic absorption spectroscopy principle and instrumentation pdf

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Atomic absorption spectrophotometry AAS was applied to the determination of serum calcium. A special diluent was developed to abolish the effect of absorption depressors. This made possible measurement of calcium in directly diluted serum samples without prior removal of any serum constituents.

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AAS is a single-element method used for trace metal analysis of e. Spectroscopic determination of atomic species can only be performed on a gasified sample in which the individual atoms such as Ag, Al, Au, Fe and Mg are well-seperated from each other. The most common source for atomic absorption measurements is the hollow cathode lamp. It consist of a tungsten anode and a cylindrical cathode seated in a glass tube containing inert gas, such as argon. The cathode is made of the element to be analyzed.

Atomic absorption spectroscopy AAS and atomic emission spectroscopy AES is a spectroanalytical procedure for the quantitative determination of chemical elements using the absorption of optical radiation light by free atoms in the gaseous state. Atomic absorption spectroscopy is based on absorption of light by free metallic ions. In analytical chemistry the technique is used for determining the concentration of a particular element the analyte in a sample to be analyzed. AAS can be used to determine over 70 different elements in solution, or directly in solid samples via electrothermal vaporization, [ citation needed ] and is used in pharmacology , biophysics , archaeology and toxicology research. Atomic emission spectroscopy was first used as an analytical technique, and the underlying principles were established in the second half of the 19th century by Robert Wilhelm Bunsen and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff , both professors at the University of Heidelberg , Germany.

Elena Sevostianova. The study of absorption spectra by means of passing electromagnetic radiation through an atomic medium that is selectively absorbing; this produces pure electronic transitions free from vibrational and rotational transitions. Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology. Operating instructions for Perkin-Elmer Spectrophotometer Model Atomic Absorption Resources. Elements detectable by atomic absorption are highlighted in pink in this periodic table.

atomic absorption spectroscopy instrumentation pdf

AAS quantitatively measures the concentrations of elements present in a liquid sample. It utilises the principle that elements in the gas phase absorb light at very specific wavelengths which gives the technique excellent specificity and detection limits. The sample may be an aqueous or organic solution, indeed it may even be solid provided it can be dissolved successfully. The liquid is drawn in to a flame where it is ionised in the gas phase. Light of a specific wavelength appropriate to the element being analysed is shone through the flame, the absorption is proportional to the concentration of the element.

Atom gas phase then is radiated with EM 4. Instruments 6. Experimental Techniques 7. This is because for the determination of most metals and metalloids the technique offers sufficient sensitivity for many applications and is relatively interference free. In FAAS, a source of pure light is needed to excite the analytes without causing excessive instrumental noise. The far Infrared region : This is know as the rotation region.

The Double beam system will compensate for any drift from the source HCL and any response changes from the PMT detector. Consequently light is absorbed by a ground state atom or emittedby an excited atom at very precise wavelengths, resulting in line spectra.

1.4: Introduction to Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

The earliest spectroscopy was first described by Marcus Marci von Kronland in by analyzing sunlight as is passed through water droplets and thus creating a rainbow. Kirchoff further explained the phenomenon by stating that if a material can emit radiation of a certain wavelength, that it may also absorb radiation of that wavelength. Although Bunsen and Kirchoff took a large step in defining the technique of atomic absorption spectroscopy AAS , it was not widely utilized as an analytical technique except in the field of astronomy due to many practical difficulties. He advocated AAS to many instrument manufacturers, but to no avail. Since that time, AAS's popularity has fluctuated as other analytical techniques and improvements to the methods are made.

Consequently light is absorbed by a ground state atom or emittedby an excited atom at very precise wavelengths, resulting in line spectra. For example, the cure of anaerobic adhesives on nonreactive surfaces is usually assisted by the use of an active metal-based primer.

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Atomic absorption spectroscopy

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Leala Q.


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Athena G.


rection and graphite furnace atomic absorption techniques. iv In modern instrumentation, the calibration can be made within the instrument to provide Zeeman background correction uses the principle that the electronic energy levels of an.

Harry B.


An atomic absorption spectrometer is simply an instrument in which these basic principles are applied to practical quantitative analysis. Figure 1 Schematic of a.