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- Hegemony: A conceptual and theoretical analysis
- Gramsci Hegemony And International Relations: An Essay In Method
- Robert Cox - Gramsci, Hegemony and International Relations"
- Theorizing Realist and Gramscian Hegemony
Hegemony: A conceptual and theoretical analysis
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Gramsci Hegemony And International Relations: An Essay In Method
This paper provides a conceptual and theoretical analysis of the concept of hegemony in the field of International Relations. Although the concept of hegemony is frequently employed in the literature, it is quite apparent that different meanings are attributed to it. This is not necessarily surprising because the field itself is divided into different theoretical perspectives that offer contrasting accounts of key concepts, including hegemony. The main section of the paper examines how different theoretical approaches in the field, such as realism, liberalism, constructivism, as well as neo-Gramscianism and the English School, comprehend the concept of hegemony. Based on a thorough review of the literature, I argue that there is a fundamental division between, on the one hand, hegemony as overwhelming power and, on the other hand, the exercise of some form of leadership.
Later, it could be used to mean "a group or regime which exerts undue influence within a society". In cultural imperialism , the leader state dictates the internal politics and the societal character of the subordinate states that constitute the hegemonic sphere of influence , either by an internal, sponsored government or by an external, installed government. In international relations theory , hegemony denotes a situation of i great material asymmetry in favour of one state, that has ii enough military power to systematically defeat any potential contester in the system, iii controls the access to raw materials, natural resources, capital and markets, iv has competitive advantages in the production of value added goods, v generates an accepted ideology reflecting this status quo; and vi is functionally differentiated from other states in the system, being expected to provide certain public goods such as security, or commercial and financial stability. The Marxist theory of cultural hegemony , associated particularly with Antonio Gramsci , is the idea that the ruling class can manipulate the value system and mores of a society, so that their view becomes the world view Weltanschauung : in Terry Eagleton 's words, "Gramsci normally uses the word hegemony to mean the ways in which a governing power wins consent to its rule from those it subjugates". Likewise, the role of Athens within the short-lived Delian League — BC was that of a "hegemon". Ancient historians such as Herodotus c.
Robert Cox - Gramsci, Hegemony and International Relations"
Traditionally, Realist hegemony describes the dominance of one state over several others, while Gramscian theory defines hegemony as a combination of coercion and consent which is not merely exercised by the state, but by civil society as well Howson and Smith This essay will focus on the Gramscian concept of hegemony and attempt to dissolve its complexity while relating it to the Realist view. An outline of the key aspects of cultural leadership and the expanded notion of power and the Integral State will explain why both coercion and consent are essential to achieve hegemony. To make the theoretical analysis of hegemony clearer and more applicable to International Relations practice, this essay will include examples of the United States as a hegemon in the Gramscian sense. As Marx had predicted that revolution and the transition to socialism would primarily occur in the advanced capitalist societies, Gramsci aimed to investigate why revolutionary struggles had failed in Western Europe but had proven successful in Russia Hobden and Wyn Jones
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Theorizing Realist and Gramscian Hegemony
I am grateful to Jouke Huijzer, Daniel DeRock and two anonymous reviewers for constructive comments on the manuscript. The liberal international order LIO is in crisis. Numerous publications, debates and events have time and again made it clear that we are in the midst of a grand transformation of world order.
This study aims to investigate the decline of American hegemony as one of the most prominent crises of the modern world order, from a broader perspective that transcends narrow traditional interpretations. The paper assumes that the September 11 events in have launched the actual decline in American hegemony. The study investigates the decline in American hegemony through a longitudinal within-case analysis which focuses on the causal path of decline in hegemony in the case of the USA, since the events of September 11, , and tries to identify the causal mechanisms behind this decline. Following George and Bennet , the study uses process tracing to examine its research question. Process-tracing method seeks to identify the intervening causal process — causal chain or causal mechanisms or the steps in a causal process — that leads to the outcome of a particular case in a specific historical context Mahoney, ; Bennet and Elman, The study chose this method, as it offers more potential for identifying causal mechanisms and theory testing George and Bennet, ; it opted for a specific procedure, among the variety of process-tracing procedures listed by George and Bennet, which is the detailed narrative presented as a chronicle, accompanied by explicit causal hypotheses. Using this process tracing procedure, the study assumes that American hegemony has witnessed dramatic changes in the aftermath of critical junctures, particularly the events of September 11, , and the financial crises, , which contributed significantly to this decline.
Gramsci, Hegemony and International. Relations: An Essay in Method*. Robert W. Cox. Some time ago I began reading Gramsci's Prison.
Hegemony , Hegemony , the dominance of one group over another, often supported by legitimating norms and ideas. The term hegemony is today often used as shorthand to describe the relatively dominant position of a particular set of ideas and their associated tendency to become commonsensical and intuitive, thereby inhibiting the dissemination or even the articulation of alternative ideas. The associated term hegemon is used to identify the actor, group, class, or state that exercises hegemonic power or that is responsible for the dissemination of hegemonic ideas. Its use in political analysis was somewhat limited until its intensive discussion by the Italian politician and Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci.
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