Vibration Monitoring Testing And Instrumentation Pdf

vibration monitoring testing and instrumentation pdf

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Condition monitoring is the process of monitoring conditions in machinery such as vibration and temperature to look for signs that a fault may be developing. Condition monitoring is more efficient than reactive maintenance since faults can generally be avoided, thus reducing machine downtime, saving money and prolonging the life of the machine. Condition monitoring was carried out, at one time, by an experienced engineer holding a wooden stick against a piece of machinery and feeling the frequencies and harmonies of its vibrations. While this technique could reveal much about the condition of the machine, we are now lucky enough to live in the age of cyber technology and Advanced Maintenance Techniques AMTs.

What is Condition Monitoring – your indepth guide and pdf

Condition monitoring is the process of monitoring conditions in machinery such as vibration and temperature to look for signs that a fault may be developing. Condition monitoring is more efficient than reactive maintenance since faults can generally be avoided, thus reducing machine downtime, saving money and prolonging the life of the machine. Condition monitoring was carried out, at one time, by an experienced engineer holding a wooden stick against a piece of machinery and feeling the frequencies and harmonies of its vibrations.

While this technique could reveal much about the condition of the machine, we are now lucky enough to live in the age of cyber technology and Advanced Maintenance Techniques AMTs. Use of the latest developments in computer analysis enables engineers to make better-informed judgements about the condition and future operation of machinery — either a stand-alone piece of equipment or as part of a multi-machine process.

This allows engineers to better plan maintenance procedures, with only-when-necessary or just-in-time maintenance replacing old-style regular fixed-date monitoring. Condition monitoring engineers can now carry out assessment and maintenance at a more efficient time, leading to more efficient production and less down time.

Nowadays, machinery has less of a limited lifetime through inevitable breakdown of components, with condition monitoring providing the opportunity to prevent a knock-on effect through other parts of the machine.

The greatest enemy of modern manufacture is built-in obsolescence, as manufacturing processes go through ever greater changes in techniques due to computer and other technology advancements. Therefore, as technology advances, so do monitoring and maintenance move forward to keep pace. The world of maintenance has changed enormously since the days when all one could do was wait until a machine failed before repairing it. The introduction of preventative maintenance led to what engineers have at their disposal today, with processes such as Reliability Centred Management, allowing machines to continue operating as normal while establishing a safe minimum of maintenance.

We are now in the era of Condition Monitoring and Predictive Maintenance. Using these techniques allows engineers to keep efficiency at optimum levels by both detecting present or future faults and predicting possible failures.

This enables maintenance to be scheduled to ensure as little down time as possible, and do away with unnecessary inspection procedures. In the future, everything will be connected to everything else, as the kettle said to the fridge.

But we are now living in the future, and almost everything is already connected to almost everything else. Something that works for the good of everyone involved does not make people want to pick up a newspaper. The Internet of Things is simply a grand name for devices being able to connect and communicate, independently of user interaction. This allows processes such as condition monitoring to run in the background while machines are operating, communicating between two or machines, even between machines in different locations, in different countries.

This could be your aforementioned kitchen equipment. The name we now use for this connectivity, the internet of things, was first used at a United States Commerce Department conference as long ago as It was only a couple of decades previously that the only communication between machines in a large manufacturing plant was two men shouting to each other over the noise.

The overwhelming benefit of this facility of communication is the ability for constant monitoring, with machines able to both provide and receive data, and running speeds, vibrations and temperatures to be constantly compared and evaluated. The more data that is available, the further into the future analysts and engineers are able to see.

The future is looking very bright for condition monitoring. Carrying out diagnostic and remedial procedures as and when is a vital aid to productivity. It was only when a friend advised him to produce a range of branded hair care products, that he realised that he could also earn money while he slept. Products were selling all across the world, all day every day, while he happily snipped away for only eight hours a day. There are many methods available these days to make money or sustain levels of productivity while we are buy elsewhere, giving us more time to create, develop and plan for the future.

The Internet of Things, often called IoT, is the term applied to any device that has the capacity to inter-connect with another.

This can range from something as simple as a remote control to turn kitchen appliances on and off to a network of machines working together, but thousands of miles apart. The time taken to carry out thermographic and vibration monitoring on one machine can now be used to carry out those same diagnostic procedures on many simultaneously.

In a large, multi-site production process, each machine in the chain, which need not be carrying out identical procedures, delivers information about its running speed, temperatures, vibrations and alignments through a sensor, often to a field gateway for data analysis locally.

Information such as detection and analysis of any anomalies, possible imminent faults and the remaining useful lifetime of the machine or device can be stored and acted upon. The sooner any change in running levels is detected in one or more of the machines in the chain of production, the more time operators have to assess and rectify any problems.

There are two main ways to avoid machine down time in manufacturing. One is to use condition-based monitoring to make the most accurate possible prediction as to when a piece of equipment will begin to fail. The key aspects of condition monitoring include:. While all of these aspects are vital to optimum operation of production machinery, the best results are achieved when they are used together in a holistic approach — different processes may indicate the same possible fault, but none on their own can give a total overview of the machine, or others in its operating chain.

Vibration analysis performs its own unique function. Machinery will naturally find its own vibrating frequency, just as a piano is tuned, and will operate at its optimal output when this frequency is maintained. These faults are not always self-contained, and can often have a knock-on effect to other parts, so early detection can save operators a great deal of time, money and stress.

Laser alignment is another key part of the overall condition monitoring picture. As with vibration analysis, laser alignment detects the smallest deviations in shafts to give accurate warning of possible breakdowns. Another related aspect is in-situ balance and calibration.

Having the ability to inspect and repair or replace parts on-site greatly reduces both costs and down time. Infra-red thermography has many uses in medicine, firefighting and natural sciences as well as in engineering, and by measuring slight changes in temperature can add to the overall picture of the health of a machine.

There are two main areas of condition monitoring that ensure smooth running and optimum maintenance. Vibration analysis and Thermography. Both of these procedures will investigate all parts of the machine, from small cable connectors and switches to motors, pumps and gearboxes. Another procedure commonly used alongside vibration and thermographic analysis is the studying of oils used in the machine.

Correct fill levels, oil degradation and contamination are all areas that can have a massive effect on the running of the machine. We may neglect to have our cars serviced regularly, to our cost, but this cost is magnified to a huge degree when applied to manufacturing equipment costing many thousands of pounds. So remember that prevention is a lot, lot better than cure.

Any industry that uses heavy plant machinery can benefit from condition monitoring. While we all know that it is better to prevent faults from occurring or growing worse in machinery, sometimes other factors come into the equation to delay monitoring and lead to major breakdown. Without all machines on a site, or sites connected through the internet of things, working at optimum output, the whole operation is at risk,.

An operator should be conversant with its characteristics, its own sounds and vibrations and may get a hunch that all is not right. Modern machines are fitted with gauges, of course, to measure speed and temperature, for instance, but more complex measurement and diagnosis is only possible with specialist maintenance and monitoring. Planned maintenance is essential, but if it is only planned for a time when the manufacturer would rather have the machine producing, it can be costly, especially if it shows that all is not well.

Condition-based monitoring can detect possible faults well before they are likely to happen, so is the ideal method of keeping a machine in maximum condition.

It is then simple to predict when a machine part may need re-calibrating, repairing or replacing. Predictive maintenance is now regarded as the only way to ensure the smooth running of manufacturing machinery, keep output at optimum levels and prevent the possibility of machine breakdowns. Any unplanned stoppage of a machine will naturally cost money, but if parts are damaged due to poor maintenance or lack of pro-active monitoring, the costs can be enormous.

Condition Monitoring and Preventative Maintenance saves companies vast amounts of money on repair and replacement of parts as well as preventing loss of production through down time. Monitoring is the effective way of avoiding problems in the future.

While it is no great hardship when we run out of tea bags, it is essential when running machinery to effectively monitor the condition of all machines, either running independently or as part of a chain.

Condition-based monitoring is used as part of an overall strategy to keep machines running smoothly at optimum output and efficiency levels. While a machine may be running correctly at any given time, it is essential to monitor its performance regularly to predict accurately what will happen to its operation.

Regular servicing is vital. Condition-based monitoring may show that the machine is the best ever built and should go on working forever. On the other hand, it may show that the equipment is due for a fatal breakdown in the next 24 hours While these are extreme examples, there is no knowing what state the machine is in without using the tools of condition-based monitoring — thermography, vibration analysis or laser alignment, for instance.

Checks and data collection are carried out at the most convenient time in the running of the operation, thus avoiding costly down time or disruption to shift patterns.

Diagnosing when a part or parts need to be repaired or replaced, and more critically when this needs to happen, is essential for the optimum use of not just one machine but others that rely on it as part of an efficient overall operation. The more components involved in a process, the more that can potentially go wrong.

But modern life, and manufacturing in particular, necessitates a vast number of complex procedures to facilitate the most simple actions. However, once the procedures are implemented properly, although they may seem to be working efficiently, there is still the need for condition monitoring.

This can be carried with analysis of vibrations, temperature fluctuations and laser alignment, either on a per machine basis or by monitoring more than one machine through the Internet of Things. Modern procedures in monitoring and manufacturing efficiency are primarily concerned with the collection and analysis of ever more complex data. There is now greater opportunity to assess the possibility of a future breakdown, and more components that may possibly break down.

But the more data that engineers have at their disposal, the less chance there is that anything will break down. So the world is becoming both more complex and simpler at the same time.

But everything has its price. The cost of greater efficiency through complex systems is time spent through research and development — for every successful idea there are many more that never leave the drawing board.

However, the risks taken in implementing these designs can lead to massive success. As machines advance through technology, so condition monitoring advances alongside.

Machines are now integrating condition monitoring from the outset. Although at first only individual parts of machines were being monitored, now it is essential for the whole of the machine, and others in its manufacturing chain, to be monitored as part of an integrate complex system.

The key consideration now, and as far as we can see into the future, is to take on board complex component parts of the manufacturing process and incorporate them into a system that has parts that may work independently, but are always an essential piece of an efficient, holistic manufacturing process, leading to greater efficiency and output.

Condition based monitoring can be used to decide what maintenance work needs to be done. Technology changes all the time, so what does that mean for the future of Condition Monitoring? We thought this deserved a post all of its own. Your email address will not be published. Related articles. Condition Monitoring.

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Vibration Analyzer / Vibration Analyser

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Vibration Analyzer / Vibration Analyser

A conventional instrumentation systems in monitoring vibration of large-scale infrastructure building such as bridges, railway, and others structural building, generally has a complex design. Makes it simple would be very useful both in terms of low-cost and easy maintenance. To make system become simple, low cost, and easy in maintenance, this paper proposes a distributed network for implementation system. The system consists of field bus topology, using single-master multi-slave architecture.

It is essential to monitor critical machines in the plants for increasing their efficiency and reliability. Unbalance of shaft, Bearing problem, Cracking of the rings, Fluid coupling problem, Shaft misalignment, Oil whirl and other dynamic instabilities.

Interview Questions on Vibration Measurement

Мелькнул лучик надежды. Но уже через минуту парень скривился в гримасе. Он с силой стукнул бутылкой по столу и вцепился в рубашку Беккера. - Она девушка Эдуардо, болван. Только тронь ее, и он тебя прикончит.

Глаза ее были полны слез. - Сьюзан. По ее щеке скатилась слеза. - Что с тобой? - в голосе Стратмора слышалась мольба. Лужа крови под телом Хейла расползалась на ковре, напоминая пятно разлитой нефти. Стратмор смущенно посмотрел на труп, затем перевел взгляд на Сьюзан. Неужели она узнала.


PDF | Experimental requirements at Bates place stringent excursion limits on The measurement setup, plans for improvements and vibration monitoring on site​.


Бринкерхофф поднял руки в знак капитуляции. - Извини. Беру свои слова обратно.

Basics of Structural Vibration Testing and Analysis

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