File Name: psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism .zip
- Perfectionism and Acceptance
- Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism.
- Perfectionism and Acceptance
Perfectionism , in psychology , is a broad personality style characterized by a person's concern with striving for flawlessness and perfection and is accompanied by critical self-evaluations and concerns regarding others' evaluations. Recent data show that perfectionistic tendencies are on the rise among recent generations of young people. Perfectionists strain compulsively and unceasingly toward unattainable goals, and measure their self-worth by productivity and accomplishment. Perfectionists tend to be harsh critics of themselves when they fail to meet their expectations. Hamachek in argued for two contrasting types of perfectionism, classifying people as tending towards normal perfectionism or neurotic perfectionism.
Perfectionism and Acceptance
Perfectionism , in psychology , is a broad personality style characterized by a person's concern with striving for flawlessness and perfection and is accompanied by critical self-evaluations and concerns regarding others' evaluations. Recent data show that perfectionistic tendencies are on the rise among recent generations of young people. Perfectionists strain compulsively and unceasingly toward unattainable goals, and measure their self-worth by productivity and accomplishment.
Perfectionists tend to be harsh critics of themselves when they fail to meet their expectations. Hamachek in argued for two contrasting types of perfectionism, classifying people as tending towards normal perfectionism or neurotic perfectionism. Normal perfectionists are more inclined to pursue perfection without compromising their self-esteem, and derive pleasure from their efforts.
Neurotic perfectionists are prone to strive for unrealistic goals and feel dissatisfied when they cannot reach them. Hamachek offers several strategies that have proven useful in helping people change from maladaptive towards healthier behavior.
However, it is debated whether perfectionism can be adaptive and has positive aspects. In fact, recent research suggests that what is termed "adaptive perfectionism" is associated with suicidal thinking,  depression,  eating disorders,  poor health  and early mortality. In fact, there is no empirical support for the assertion that a healthy form of perfectionism exists.
Instead, what has been termed adaptive perfectionism has little relation to perfectionism and has more to do with striving for excellence. Stoeber and K. Otto suggested in a narrative review that perfectionism consists of two main dimensions: perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. Perfectionistic strivings are associated with positive aspects of perfectionism; perfectionistic concerns are associated with negative aspects see below.
Prompted by earlier research providing empirical evidence that perfectionism could be associated with positive aspects specifically perfectionistic strivings ,  they challenged the widespread belief that perfectionism is only detrimental through a non-emprical narrative review. They claimed that people with high levels of perfectionistic strivings and low levels of perfectionist concerns demonstrated more self-esteem , agreeableness , academic success and social interaction.
This type of perfectionist also showed fewer psychological and somatic issues typically associated with perfectionism, namely depression , anxiety and maladaptive coping styles. The Comprehensive Model of Perfectionism operationalizes perfectionism as a multilevel and multidimensional personality style that contains a trait level, a self-presentational level, and a cognitive level.
The stable, dispositional, trait-like level of this model includes self-oriented perfectionism, socially prescribed perfectionism, as well as other-oriented perfectionism. In contrast, other-oriented perfectionists direct their perfectionism towards external sources and are preoccupied with expecting perfection from others.
The second component of the Comprehensive Model of Perfectionism contains the interpersonal expression of perfection through impression management and self-monitoring. Like the perfectionism traits, these components are also multifaceted. One of its facets, perfectionistic self-promotion, refers to the expression of perfectionism by actively presenting a flawless, though often false, image of oneself. This component therefore entails the information-processing related to perfectionism.
The Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model PSDM is a dynamic-relational model describing perfectionism and its consequences in an interpersonal context. Paradoxically, this often rigid, aloof, and self-concealing relational style increases the potential for alienation and rejection and can lead to social disconnection. Randy O. Frost et al.
Self-oriented perfectionism refers to having unrealistic expectations and standards for oneself that lead to perfectionistic motivation. Socially prescribed perfectionism is characterized by developing perfectionistic motivations due actual or perceived high expectations of significant others. Parents who push their children to be successful in certain endeavors such as athletics or academics provide an example of what often causes this type of perfectionism, as the children feel that they must meet their parents' lofty expectations.
Hewitt et al. The PSPS measures the expression the process of the trait of perfectionism and is directly linked to the perfectionism traits, particularly self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. Additionally, the dimensions of the PSPS correlate with measures of psychological distress, such as anxiety symptoms, indicating that perfectionistic self-presentation is a maladaptive, defensive tendency.
The Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory PCI developed by Flett, Hewitt, Blankstein, and Gray is a item inventory measuring the self-relational, cognitive component of perfectionism in the form of automatic thoughts about attaining perfection. The PCI is associated with the presence of negative automatic thoughts and scoring high on this measure has been linked to a high degree of self-criticism, self-blame and failure perseveration.
Discrepancy refers to the belief that personal high standards are not being met, which is the defining negative aspect of perfectionism. In general, the APS-R is a relatively easy instrument to administer, and can be used to identify perfectionist adolescents as well as adults, though it has yet to be proven useful for children. The validity of the APS-R has been challenged. Namely, some researchers maintain that high standards are not necessarily perfectionistic standards. Moreover, a number of researchers view the relevance of discrepancy to the perfectionism literature as suspect given the number of negative mood terms included.
Including negative mood terms in items, such as the discrepancy subscale, greatly increases the likelihood for discovering a relation between perfectionism and neuroticism which may be simply due to wording rather than a perfectionism-neuroticism link.
In general, the PAPS allows researchers to determine participants' body image and self-conceptions of their looks, which is critical in present times when so much attention is paid to attractiveness and obtaining the ideal appearance. Those that obtain high "Worry About Imperfection" scores are usually greatly concerned with attaining perfection, physical appearance, and body control behavior.
In summary, Worry About Imperfection relates to negative aspects of appearance perfectionism, while Hope For Perfection relates to positive aspects. One limitation of using the PAPS is the lack of psychological literature evaluating its validity. Perfectionists tend to dissociate themselves from their flaws or what they believe are flaws such as negative emotions and can become hypocritical and hypercritical of others, seeking the illusion of virtue to hide their own vices.
Researchers have begun to investigate the role of perfectionism in various mental disorders such as depression ,  anxiety , eating disorders  and personality disorders , as well as suicide. The relationship that exists between perfectionistic tendencies and methods of coping with stress has also been examined in some detail. Those who displayed tendencies associated with perfectionism, such as rumination over past events or fixation on mistakes, tended to utilize more passive or avoidance coping.
Perfectionism can be damaging. It can take the form of procrastination when used to postpone tasks and self-deprecation when used to excuse poor performance or to seek sympathy and affirmation from other people.
These, together or separate, are self-handicapping strategies perfectionists may use to protect their sense of self-competence. Perfectionism has been associated with numerous other psychological and physiological complications. Moreover, perfectionism may result in alienation and social disconnection via certain rigid interpersonal patterns common to perfectionistic individuals. In , suicide was the second most common cause of overall mortality among adolescents in the United States.
The numbers vary annually as suicide is underreported. Perfectionism is increasingly considered to be a risk factor for suicide. Importantly, the relation between suicidality and perfectionism depends on the particular perfectionism dimensions.
Perfectionistic strivings are associated with suicidal ideation while perfectionistic concerns are predictive of both suicidal ideation and attempting suicide. Perfectionism has been linked with anorexia nervosa in research for decades. Researchers in described the behavior of the average anorexic person as being "rigid" and "hyperconscious", observing also a tendency to "neatness, meticulosity, and a mulish stubbornness not amenable to reason [which] make her a rank perfectionist".
It is present before the onset of the eating disorder, generally in childhood,  during the illness,  and also, after remission. Because of its chronicity, those with eating disorders also display perfectionistic tendencies in other domains of life than dieting and weight control. Over-achievement at school, for example, has been observed among anorexics,    as a result of their overly industrious behavior. The level of perfectionism was found to have an influence on individual's long-term recovery of anorexia.
Those who scored a lower range of perfectionism were able to have a faster recovery rate than patients who scored high in perfectionism. Perfectionism often shows up in performance at work or school, neatness and aesthetics, organization, writing, speaking, physical appearance, and health and personal cleanliness. This can lead to depression , social alienation , and a greater risk of workplace "accidents".
According to C. Allen, in intimate relationships, unrealistic expectations can cause significant dissatisfaction for both partners. In a different occupational context, athletes may develop perfectionist tendencies.
Optimal physical and mental performance is critical for professional athletes, which are aspects that closely relate to perfectionism. Although perfectionist athletes strive to succeed, they can be limited by their intense fear of failure and therefore not exert themselves fully or feel overly personally responsible for a loss.
Perfectionism is a risk factor for obsessive compulsive disorder ,  obsessive compulsive personality disorder , eating disorders ,  social anxiety ,  body dysmorphic disorder ,  workaholism ,  self harm and suicide,  substance abuse , and clinical depression  as well as physical problems like heart disease.
Therapists [ who? They encourage clients to set realistic goals and to face their fear of failure. Since perfectionism is a self-esteem issue based on emotional convictions about what one must do to be acceptable as a person, negative thinking is most successfully addressed in the context of a recovery process which directly addresses these convictions.
A number of studies suggest that perfectionism can limit the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Namely, perfectionism impedes treatment success across seeking, maintaining, and ultimately benefiting from help. For example, a study demonstrated that other-oriented perfectionism is associated with treatment attrition.
According to Arnold Cooper, narcissism can be considered as a self-perceived form of perfectionism — "an insistence on perfection in the idealized self-object and the limitless power of the grandiose self. These are rooted in traumatic injuries to the grandiose self. This attempt at being perfect is cohesive with the narcissist's grandiose self-image.
Perfectionism is one of Raymond Cattell 's 16 Personality Factors. In the Big Five personality traits , perfectionism is an extreme manifestation of conscientiousness and can provoke increasing neuroticism as the perfectionist's expectations are not met. Perfectionistic concerns are more similar to neuroticism while perfectionistic strivings are more similar to conscientiousness.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT has been shown to successfully help perfectionists in reducing social anxiety, public self-consciousness, obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD behaviors, and perfectionism. Consistent with the development and expression of perfectionism within an interpersonal context, this treatment focuses on the dynamic-relational basis of perfectionism.
Rather than targeting perfectionistic behaviour directly and aiming merely for symptom reduction, dynamic-relational therapy is characterized by a focus on the maladaptive relational patterns and interpersonal dynamics underlying and maintaining perfectionism. Exposure and response prevention ERP is also employed by psychologists in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, including perfectionism.
This form of therapy is premised on encouraging individuals to stop their perfectionistic behavior in tasks that they would normally pursue toward perfection. Over time, anxiety may decrease as the person finds that there are no major consequences of completing particular tasks imperfectly. Acceptance-based behavior therapy ABBT was demonstrated to have a major contribution to treat perfectionism from increasing awareness, increasing acceptance, and living a meaningful life.
This approach has been shown to be effective six months post to the therapy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Perfectionism philosophy. Personality trait characterized by a person's striving for flawlessness and setting high performance standards.
Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism.
Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Hamachek, D. Psychodynamics of Normal and Neurotic Perfectionism. Psychology Savannah, Ga. ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the relationship between parental conditional regard, perfectionism, subjective well-being and self-esteem, and the role of perfectionism as a mediator in the relationship between parental conditional regard and both subjective well-being and self-esteem. The results showed positive links between parental conditional regard and perfectionism, negative links between parental conditional regard and both subjective well-being and self-esteem and negative links between perfectionism and both subjective well-being and self-esteem. While perfectionism was a partial mediator between parental conditional regard and self-esteem, perfectionism was not a mediator between parental conditional regard and subjective well-being.
Striving for excellence is an admirable goal. Adaptive or healthy perfectionism can drive ambition and lead to extraordinary accomplishments. High-achieving people often show signs of perfectionism. However, maladaptive, unhealthy, or neurotic perfectionism, where anything less than perfect is unacceptable, can leave individuals vulnerable to depression. In both personal and professional relationships, nurses need to understand how accepting only perfection in self and others is likely to lead to emotional distress. This paper reviews perfectionism as a personality style, comments on perfectionism and high achievement, discusses vulnerabilities to depression, identifies how to recognize perfectionists, and presents balancing strategies perfectionists can implement to lessen their vulnerability to depression. Striving for excellence motivates you; striving for perfection is demoralizing.
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Perfectionism and Acceptance
Journal of Mental Health Counseling 1 October ; 34 4 : — This study was designed to explore the experiences of two groups of participants who had high scores on the positive dimensions of perfectionism high standards but who differed on a measure of worry. From a larger pool, 36 university students were selected based on their scores on the Standards and Order subscale of the Almost Perfect Scale and on the Penn State Worry Scale. Participants responded to open-ended questions eliciting their definitions of perfectionism and their views on its effects on various domains of their lives.
Сьюзан оставила это замечание без ответа. - У правительств должно быть право собирать информацию, в которой может содержаться угроза общественной безопасности. - Господи Иисусе! - шумно вздохнул Хейл. - Похоже, Стратмор здорово промыл тебе мозги.
Ты сказал - в два ночи. Панк кивнул и расхохотался. - Похоже, ты облажался, приятель.
Шесть секунд. - Утечка информации.
Расплавленные остатки миллионов кремниевых чипов извергались из ТРАНСТЕКСТА подобно вулканической лаве, густой едкий дым поднимался кверху. Она узнала этот запах, запах плавящегося кремния, запах смертельного яда. Отступив в кабинет Стратмора, Сьюзан почувствовала, что начинает терять сознание. В горле нестерпимо горело. Все вокруг светилось ярко-красными огнями.
Он все рассказал, нажал клавишу PRINT и застрелился.
Беккер был потрясен. - А как насчет вскрытия шифров. Какова твоя роль во всем .