File Name: history and structure of nigerian economy .zip
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- Economy of Nigeria
- Extractive Institutional Structure and Economic Development: Evidence from Nigeria
- Economic Growth and Trade
- Economic history of Nigeria
The institutional perspective of cross-country differences in economic outcomes gives contrasting explanations on the persistence of extractive institutions in developing countries. Colonization, social fragmentation and the existence and use of natural resources are the most frequently discussed causes in the available literature.
Colonialism is a major feature of the economic history of Nigeria. A series of unfortunate political and economic events have stalled Nigerian growth. The country still plays an important economic role in the world, especially as a producer of fossil fuels.
Economy of Nigeria
This project is based on the goal of explaining an event in the relatively recent past by working progressively further into the past to uncover more and more information that seems to bear on the issues.
Even though the effort to create Biafra came out of the context of the challenges of independent Nigeria, don't historians need to look further back to see what happened in the earlier colonial and precolonial eras to learn more about the world from which Nigeria was created?
Of course we do. After all, this is a history course. Before going further, we need to be aware of the flow of events. For the purposes of this project the "colonial" period is essentially the period between World War I and World War II while the precolonial material presented here covers the 19th century up to World War I.
During the precolonial period there is already direct contact with Europeans who operate in port cities such as Bonny as well as indirect contact though the purchase of European goods through trade as well as the production of products intended to be sent to port cities. This commerce of course was added onto the slave trading networks which had existed since around As a result of a meeting of European powers in Berlin in , the interior of Africa was divided into colonial possessions of European countries.
The English move into the land of the Igbo followed shortly thereafter, covering the period from And, in , northern and southern Nigeria were united for administrative purposes into a single British colony.
World War I was truly a world war with participants drawn from five continents and military actions spread around the globe.
There were some specific outcomes and impacts for Africans as a result of WWI. These include the fact that military conscription draft of numerous African colonial subjects into European armies generated great amounts of anger. But the war had more concrete consequences. Africans who fought alongside European whites found out that these "masters" were ordinary people, not supermen. Furthermore Africans expected to be rewarded for their service to their colonial masters with social and constitutional changes as well as economic concessions in ways that would improve their living conditions at home.
The term means that people should be independent and live within political boundaries that corresponded to where they lived. Rather than relaxing colonial strictures in gratitude after the war, the European presence in Africa intensified.
By , all those areas that were still holding out against the imperialists and clinging to their sovereignty This meant that more Africans were feeling the pinch of colonialism by the s than were by the s.
One would therefore expect to see a corresponding change in the scale of anti-colonialist or nationalist activities. Frustration and disappointment therefore grew among the educated elite, and since their number increased during the period, their became reactions not only intensified and anti-colonial but anti-traditional rulers as well. And economic conditions changed. The s and s saw worldwide economic crises which caused the price for those things produced in African countries—raw materials and cash crops—to drop sharply remember that this is the period of the Great Depression and the events leading into it.
At the same time the prices of goods imported from Europe skyrocketed. Furthermore, this period saw the rise of efforts by African Americans and others of African descent outside of Africa to link the condition of colonized Africans to universal concepts of justice, natural rights, and human rights with the goal of eliminating colonialism by promoitng independence.
This Pan-African movement attempted to gain a hearing immediately after World War I by issuing a manifesto that called for In the midst of these events the British inaugurated a system of "indirect rule" as the most effective way to manage their colonies. This system represented the backdrop to the post-World War II move to create an independent Nigeria and represented the framework for relationships between all Nigerians and the "mother country.
As you look at the different topics offered for small group study and collaboration, keep these questions in mind:. From these readings you can not only gain some additional understanding of British ideas but you will also gain a lot of insight into who the Igbo were and how they saw themselves as a people. These concepts represent 1 a critique of British assumptions about their colonial subjects and 2 reasons why the Igbo would want to develop their own literature and to have an independent state.
Can you also find in these readings any indications of the issues that will trigger civil war? Aba Women's Rebellion This event around caused significant concern among colonizers because it was a rebellion of women who took actions into their own hands in reaction to their belief that England was expanding its colonial role by issuing a new tax.
Indictment of Colonialism This excerpt, written in , adds a new dimension to the discussion with a strong criticism of Africans who were the first Africans to hold positions in England's colonial administration and trading companies. These three readings are excerpts from a book that seeks to recover the history of the Igbo people in the nineteenth century on the eve of colonialism.
While 2 is a travel report from , the other two readings are partial transcripts of oral histories of old people taken in the s. These documents represent views of village life at a time when European influence was minimal or absent.
The White Man's Burden This reading is drawn from a contemporary account describing conditions in northern Nigeria from the perspective of someone who wants the English to become more involved in the affairs of northern Nigeria.
Corey Prize Raymond J. Cunningham Prize John H. Klein Prize Waldo G. Marraro Prize George L. Mosse Prize John E. Palmegiano Prize James A. Schmitt Grant J. Beveridge Award Recipients Albert J. Corey Prize Recipients Raymond J. Cunningham Prize Recipients John H.
Fagg Prize Recipients John K. Franklin Jameson Award Recipients J. Marraro Prize Recipients George L. Palmegiano Prize Recipients James A.
Biafra on the Internet Background Readings. The Colonial and Pre-Colonial Eras in Nigeria This project is based on the goal of explaining an event in the relatively recent past by working progressively further into the past to uncover more and more information that seems to bear on the issues.
Collaboration As you look at the different topics offered for small group study and collaboration, keep these questions in mind: How do you think Africans responded to the English approach to government? What would be an African critique of these policies? Igbo Voices: Igbo Democracy European View of the Igbo, Slave trade in Igbo Society These three readings are excerpts from a book that seeks to recover the history of the Igbo people in the nineteenth century on the eve of colonialism.
Extractive Institutional Structure and Economic Development: Evidence from Nigeria
The economy of Nigeria is a middle-income, mixed economy and emerging market , with expanding manufacturing, financial, service, communications, technology and entertainment sectors. Nigeria produces only about 2. Although the petroleum sector is important, as government revenues still heavily rely on this sector, it remains a small part of the country's overall economy. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has not kept up with rapid population growth, and Nigeria, once a large net exporter of food, now [ when? According to a Citigroup report published in February , Nigeria will have the highest average GDP growth in the world between and In , Nigeria changed its economic analysis to account for rapidly growing contributors to its GDP, such as telecommunications, banking, and its film industry.
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PDF | Nigeria is endowed with vast natural resources such as petroleum, structure of Nigerian economy by highlighting the geographical The history of conscious planning for development in Nigeria can be traced to the.
Economic Growth and Trade
Before the creation of ECOWAS, the collective territory known as West Africa, was made up of an aggregation of states that had emerged from different colonial experiences and administrations which largely defined the boundaries of the 15 states domiciled in the area. Even though Member States of the community now make use of three official languages English, French and Portuguese , there are well over a thousand existing local languages including cross-border native tongues such as Ewe, Fulfulde, Hausa, Mandingo, Wolof, Yoruba, Ga, etc. Prior to colonialism, the area played host to many proud empires and kingdoms that spanned centuries, some of which included Ghana, Mali Songhai, Wolof, Oyo, Benin and Kanem Bornu. The longing to combine forces politically and economically has always been recognised as a step forward in the desire to engender co-prosperity in the area.
Sustained broad-based economic growth and poverty reduction are critical to its economic stability. It also works to improve market access, increase the country's energy supply, reduce obstacles to trade, and expand access to clean water. African Growth and Opportunity Act incentives for trade with the United States, and developing private sector capacity to meet international trade and export standards. These activities include assisting the National Customs Service for customs reform and modernization, reducing congestion at the Lagos seaport and increasing transport flows along the Lagos-Kano Jibiya Transport Corridor; and building trade capacity at the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
Тогда, кто бы ни стал обладателем ключа, он скачает себе нашу версию алгоритма. - Стратмор помахал оружием и встал. - Нужно найти ключ Хейла.
Economic history of Nigeria
У дальней стены дрожали включенные на полную мощность динамики, и даже самые неистовые танцоры не могли подойти к ним ближе чем на десять метров. Беккер заткнул уши и оглядел толпу. Куда бы ни падал его взгляд, всюду мелькали красно-бело-синие прически. Тела танцующих слились так плотно, что он не мог рассмотреть, во что они одеты. Британского флага нигде не было. Ясно, что ему не удастся влиться в это море, которое раздавит его, как утлую лодчонку.
АНБ является счастливым обладателем алгоритма Цифровой крепости, просто мы не в состоянии его открыть. Сьюзан не могла не восхититься умом Танкадо. Не открыв своего алгоритма, он доказал АНБ, что тот не поддается дешифровке.
Introduction to the history and structure of Nigerian economy: a handbook for policy makers and students of arts, management and social sciences.
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
О Боже! - воскликнул. - Что случилось. ГЛАВА 93 Причастие. Халохот сразу же увидел Беккера: нельзя было не заметить пиджак защитного цвета да еще с кровавым пятном на боку. Светлый силуэт двигался по центральному проходу среди моря черных одежд.
Нуматака затянулся сигарой умами и, выпустив струю дыма, решил подыграть этому любителю шарад.
- И что же ты ответила. Она ткнула его в ногу носком туфли. - Я сказала нет! - И, выдержав паузу, добавила: - И до вчерашней ночи это была правда. В глазах Сьюзан Дэвид был самим совершенством - насколько вообще такое .
Коммандер в два счета выставит Хейла - все-таки сегодня суббота. Но она отдавала себе отчет в том, что, если Хейла отправят домой, он сразу же заподозрит неладное, начнет обзванивать коллег-криптографов, спрашивать, что они об этом думают, В конце концов Сьюзан решила, что будет лучше, если Хейл останется. Он и так скоро уйдет.
Энсей Танкадо отдал кольцо, надеясь обнародовать ключ. И теперь - во что просто не верится - какой-то ни о чем не подозревающий канадский турист держит в своих руках ключ к самому мощному шифровальному алгоритму в истории. Сьюзан набрала полные легкие воздуха и задала неизбежный вопрос: - И где же теперь этот канадец.
Мотор кашлянул и захлебнулся. - El anillo. Кольцо, - совсем близко прозвучал голос. Беккер поднял глаза и увидел наведенный на него ствол. Барабан повернулся.
Она знала, что, если они не будут терять времени, им удастся спасти эту великую дешифровальную машину параллельной обработки. Каждый компьютер в мире, от обычных ПК, продающихся в магазинах торговой сети Радиошэк, и до систем спутникового управления и контроля НАСА, имеет встроенное страховочное приспособление как раз на случай таких ситуаций, называемое отключение из розетки.