Hellenisms Culture Identity And Ethnicity From Antiquity To Modernity Pdf

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The creation of this Resource Portal grew out of the expressed desire by academics, students and cultural producers alike to provide information on research, activities, and resources in the field of Greek American Studies broadly defined. This portal will be periodically updated to highlight the most recent resources available in the field and all selections will be archived here. Included in this latter collection are several archival articles published in the magazine Resound. Anagnostou, Yiorgos.

Selected papers on theoretical and applied linguistics

Hellenization other British spelling Hellenisation or Hellenism [1] is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture , religion , and, to a lesser extent, language over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence , particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.

The result of Hellenization was that elements of Greek origin combined in various forms and degrees with local elements, and these Greek influences spread from the Mediterranean basin as far east as modern-day Pakistan. In modern times, Hellenization has been associated with the adoption of modern Greek culture and the ethnic and cultural homogenization of Greece. Argos was home to the Kings of Macedon.

The Seuthopolis inscription was very influential in the modern study of Thrace. The inscription mentions Dionysus , Apollo and some Samothracian gods.

Scholars have interpreted the inscription as evidence of Hellenization in inland Thrace during the early Hellenistic, but this has been challenged by recent scholarship. Hellenization, however, had its limitations. For example, areas of southern Syria that were affected by Greek culture entailed mostly Seleucid urban centres, where Greek was commonly spoken. The countryside, on the other hand, was largely unaffected, with most of its inhabitants speaking Syriac and clinging to their native traditions.

Archaeological evidence alone gives only an incomplete picture of Hellenization; it is often not possible to state with certainty whether particular archaeological findings belonged to Greeks, Hellenized indigenous peoples, indigenous people who simply owned Greek-style objects or some combination of these groups. Thus, literary sources are also used to help researchers interpret archaeological findings. In , a commission appointed by the Greek government reported that a third of the villages of Greece should have their names changed, often because of their non-Greek origin.

Some village names were formed from a Greek root word with a foreign suffix or vice versa. Most of the name changes took place in areas populated by ethnic Greeks in which a strata of foreign or divergent toponyms had accumulated over the centuries. However, in some parts of northern Greece, the population was not Greek-speaking, and many of the former toponyms had reflected the diverse ethnic and linguistic origins of their inhabitants.

The process of the change of toponyms in modern Greece has been described as a process of Hellenization. In , the Greek government abolished all Italian schools in the Ionian islands , which had been annexed to Greece six years earlier.

That led to the diminution of the community of Corfiot Italians , which had lived in Corfu since the Middle Ages; by the s, there were only Corfiot Italians left. Hellenization reached Pisidia and Lycia sometime in the 4th century BC, but the interior remained largely unaffected for several more centuries until it came under Roman rule in the 1st century BC.

On the other hand, Greeks who settled in the southwestern region of Pisidia and Pamphylia seem to have been assimilated by the local culture. Panticapaeum modern day Kerch was one of the early Greek colonies in Crimea. It was founded by Miletus around BC on a site with good terrain for a defensive acropolis. By the time the Cimmerian colonies had organized into the Bosporan Kingdom around much of the local native population had been Hellenized. Tsetskhladze has dated the kingdom's founding to BC, when the Spartocid dynasty replaced the ruling Archaeanactids.

The Hellenistic Seleucid and Ptolemaic kingdoms that formed after Alexander's death were particularly relevant to the history of Judaism. Located between the two kingdoms, Palestine experienced long periods of warfare and instability. Jason had established institutions of Greek education and in later years Jewish culture started to be suppressed including forbidding circumcision and observance of the Sabbath. Hellenization of members of the Jewish elite included names, clothes but other customs were adapted by the rabbis and elements that violated the halakha and midrash were prohibited.

One example is the elimination of some aspects of Hellenistic banquets such as the practice of offering libations to the gods, while incorporating certain elements that gave the meals a more Jewish character.

Discussion of Scripture , the singing of sacred songs and attendance of students of the Torah was encouraged. One detailed account of Jewish-style Hellenistic banquets comes from Ben Sira.

There is literary evidence from Philo about the extravagance of Alexandrian Jewish banquets and The Letter of Aristeas discusses Jews dining with non-Jews as an opportunity to share Jewish wisdom. Pamphylia is a plain located between the highlands of Lycia and Cilicia. The exact date of Greek settlement in the region is not known; one possible theory is that settlers arrived in the region as part of Bronze Age maritime trade between the Aegean , Levant and Cyprus , while another attributes it to population movements during the instability of the Bronze Age Collapse.

Mopsus is a legendary founder of several coastal cities in southwestern Anatolia, including Aspendos , Phaselis , Perge and Sillyon. For centuries the indigenous population exerted considerable influence on Greek settlers, but after the 4th century BC this population quickly started to become Hellenized. The Iron Age Panemoteichos I may be an early precursor to later regional Hellenistic settlements including Selge , Termessos and Sagalassos believed to be the three most prominent cities of Hellenistic Pisidia.

According to the writings of Arrian the population of Side , who traced their origins to Aeolian Cyme , had forgotten the Greek language by the time Alexander arrived at the city in BC.

There are coins and stone inscriptions that attest to a unique script from the region but the language has only been partially deciphered. The latest dateable coins found at the Phrygian capital of Gordion are from the 2nd century BC. Finds from the abandoned Hellenistic era settlement include imported and locally produced imitation Greek-style terracotta figurines and ceramics.

Inscriptions show that some of the inhabitants had Greek names, while others had Anatolian or possibly Celtic names. Greek art and culture reached Phoenicia by way of commerce before any Greek cities were founded in Syria. Under Roman rule in the 1st century BC there is evidence of Hellenistic style funerary architecture, decorative elements, mythological references, and inscriptions. However, there is a lack of evidence from Hellenistic Syria; concerning this, most scholars view it as a case of "absence of evidence is not evidence of absence".

The Bactrians , an Iranian ethnic group who lived in Bactria northern Afghanistan , were Hellenized during the reign of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom and soon after various tribes in northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent underwent Hellenization during the reign of the Indo-Greek Kingdom.

The periodization of the Hellenistic Age , between the conquests of Alexander the Great up to Octavian ' s victory at the Battle of Actium , has been attributed to the 19th-century historian J. According to this model the spread of Greek culture during this period made the rise of Christianity possible. Later, in the 20th century, scholars questioned this 19th-century paradigm for failing to account for the contributions of Semitic and other Near Eastern cultures.

The twentieth century witnessed a lively debate over the extent of Hellenization in the Levant , particularly among the ancient Jews , which has continued until today. Interpretations on the rise of Early Christianity , which was applied most famously by Rudolf Bultmann , used to see Judaism as largely unaffected by Hellenism, and the Judaism of the diaspora was thought to have succumbed thoroughly to its influences. Bultmann thus argued that Christianity arose almost completely within those Hellenistic confines and should be read against that background, as opposed to a more traditional Jewish background.

With the publication of Martin Hengel 's two-volume study Hellenism and Judaism , German original and subsequent studies Jews, Greeks and Barbarians: Aspects of the Hellenisation of Judaism in the pre-Christian Period , German original and The 'Hellenisation' of Judaea in the First Century after Christ , German original , the tide began to turn decisively.

Hengel argued that virtually all of Judaism was highly Hellenized well before the beginning of the Christian era, and even the Greek language was well known throughout the cities and even the smaller towns of Jewish Palestine. Scholars have continued to nuance Hengel's views, but almost all believe that strong Hellenistic influences were throughout the Levant, even among the conservative Jewish communities, which were the most nationalistic.

In his introduction to the book Meditations , Anglican priest Maxwell Staniforth discussed the profound influence of Stoic philosophy on Christianity:.

Again in the doctrine of the Trinity, the ecclesiastical conception of Father, Word, and Spirit finds its germ in the different Stoic names of the Divine Unity. Thus Seneca , writing of the supreme Power which shapes the universe, states, 'This Power we sometimes call the All-ruling God, sometimes the incorporeal Wisdom, sometimes the holy Spirit, sometimes Destiny. The Greek East was one of the two main cultural areas of the Roman Empire and began to be ruled by an autonomous imperial court in AD under Diocletian.

However, Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts of the empire, and Latin was the state language. A process of political Hellenization began and led, among other reforms, to the declaration of Greek as the official language in AD. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Historical spread of ancient Greek culture. See also: Hellenism disambiguation. This article is about the spread of Greek culture.

For the renaming of places in Greece, see Hellenization of place names. Main article: Geographical name changes in Greece. See also: Grecomans. Main article: Bosporan Kingdom. Further information: Hellenistic Judaism. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. July Main article: Byzantine Empire. Main article: Hellenization in the Byzantine Empire.

Retrieved 29 July Here Seleucus himself created four cities—his capital of Antiochia-on-the-Orontes, and Apamea, Seleucia and Laodicia—all new foundations with a European citizen body.

Twelve other Hellenistic cities are known there, and the Seleucid army was largely based in this region, either garrisoning its towns or settled as reservists in military colonies. Hellenisation, although intensive, seems in the main to have been confined to these urban centers, where Greek was commonly spoken. The country people appear to have been little affected by the cultural change, and continued to speak Syriac and to follow their traditional ways.

Despite its political importance, little is known of Syria under Macedonian rule, and even the process of Hellenisation is mainly to be traced in the one community which has preserved some records from this time, namely the Jews of South Syria. Palestine lay on the border separating these two kingdoms and therefore was a constant bone of contention, passing sometimes into Seleucid and at other times into Ptolemaic control. Yale University Press. University of Pennsylvania Press.

London: Penguin Books. Athanassakis, Apostolos N. American Journal of Philology. Boardman, John; Hammond, N. Cambridge University Press. Boyce, Mary; Grenet, Frantz A History of Zoroastrianism, Vol. Daskalov, Roumen; Vezenkov, Alexander 13 March Entangled Histories of the Balkans. Giulio, Vignoli Milan: A. Migrations and Invasions in Greece and Adjacent Areas. Noyes Press. Hornblower, Simon

Hellenisms: Culture, Identity, and Ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity

Professor of Byzantine Studies, University of Vienna. Byzantine Studies Late Antiquity social history writing culture Christianity. Journal of Early Christian Studies 6 3 , , The cult of saints in late antiquity and the Middle Ages, , The Journal of Theological Studies 49 2 , ,

The system can't perform the operation now. Try again later. Citations per year. Duplicate citations. The following articles are merged in Scholar. Their combined citations are counted only for the first article.

This volume casts a fresh look at the multifaceted expressions of diachronic Hellenisms. A distinguished group of historians, classicists, anthropologists, ethnographers, cultural studies, and comparative literature scholars contribute essays exploring the variegated mantles of Greek ethnicity, and the legacy of Greek culture for the ancient and modern Greeks in the homeland and the diaspora, as well as for the ancient Romans and the modern Europeans. Given the scarcity of books on diachronic Hellenism in the English-speaking world, the publication of this volume represents nothing less than a breakthrough. The book provides a valuable forum to reflect on Hellenism, and is certain to generate further academic interest in the topic. The specific contribution of this volume lies in the fact that it problematizes the fluidity of Hellenism and offers a much-needed public dialogue between disparate viewpoints, in the process making a case for the existence and viability of such a polyphony.

Hellenization

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Hellenisms: Culture, Identity, and Ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity by Katerina Zacharia

The sounds of English: Units and patterns. JRT Systems. Asher, J. Garcia The optimal age to learn a foreign language. The Modern Language Journal 53 5 : Bausinger, H.

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This volume casts a fresh look at the multifaceted expressions of diachronic Hellenisms. A distinguished group of historians, classicists, anthropologists, ethnographers, cultural studies, and comparative literature scholars contribute essaysMoreThis volume casts a fresh look at the multifaceted expressions of diachronic Hellenisms. A distinguished group of historians, classicists, anthropologists, ethnographers, cultural studies, and comparative literature scholars contribute essays exploring the variegated mantles of Greek ethnicity, and the legacy of Greek culture for the ancient and modern Greeks in the homeland and the diaspora, as well as for the ancient Romans and the modern Europeans. Given the scarcity of books on diachronic Hellenism in the English-speaking world, the publication of this volume represents nothing less than a breakthrough. The book provides a valuable forum to reflect on Hellenism, and is certain to generate further academic interest in the topic.


Hellenisms: Culture, Identity, and Ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity. Edited by Katerina Zacharia. Pp. xvi Caption. Download PDF. back.


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Hellenisms: Culture, Identity, and Ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity

Hellenization other British spelling Hellenisation or Hellenism [1] is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture , religion , and, to a lesser extent, language over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence , particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC. The result of Hellenization was that elements of Greek origin combined in various forms and degrees with local elements, and these Greek influences spread from the Mediterranean basin as far east as modern-day Pakistan. In modern times, Hellenization has been associated with the adoption of modern Greek culture and the ethnic and cultural homogenization of Greece. Argos was home to the Kings of Macedon. The Seuthopolis inscription was very influential in the modern study of Thrace. The inscription mentions Dionysus , Apollo and some Samothracian gods. Scholars have interpreted the inscription as evidence of Hellenization in inland Thrace during the early Hellenistic, but this has been challenged by recent scholarship.

 - Вы все время говорите о произвольном наборе букв. Мне кажется, я должен вам сказать… что это не случайный набор букв. Все на подиуме воскликнули: - Что. В голосе Беккера слышались извиняющиеся нотки: - Простите, но это определенно осмысленные слова. Они выгравированы очень близко одно к другому и на первый взгляд кажутся произвольным набором букв, но если присмотреться повнимательнее, то… становится ясно, что надпись сделана по-латыни. - Вы что, морочите нам голову? - взорвался Джабба. Беккер покачал головой: - Отнюдь .

Возможно, он работал в одиночку.

Он лежал, устремив глаза к небу и продолжая прижимать руку к груди. Внезапно камера отъехала в сторону, под деревья. В кадре возник мужчина в очках в тонкой металлической оправе, в руке он держал большой портфель. Выйдя на открытое место и бросив взгляд на корчащегося на земле Танкадо, он задвигал пальцами, словно исполнял ими какой-то причудливый танец над коробочкой, которую держал в руке. - Он работает на Монокле, - пояснил Смит.

 Ладно, - процедил Стратмор.  - Итак, даже в самых экстремальных условиях самый длинный шифр продержался в ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ около трех часов. - Да.

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This volume casts a fresh look at the multifaceted expressions of diachronic Hellenisms. A distinguished group of historians, classicists, anthropologists, ethn.

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